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Disorders of Memory and Language are contributed by several factors, such as hearing loss and mental retardation. Amnesia is one type of memory impairment that refers to memory loss that includes information, facts, and experiences. Amnesia is also known as an amnesic syndrome. Its symptoms interfere with brain mechanisms resulting in memory disorders.
People suffering from amnesia experience trouble when making new reminiscences and when learning any fresh facts. Amnesia is a memory disorder caused by damage occurring in some parts of the brain that are important for reminiscence processing (Beckers & Kindt, 2017). Amnesia can be enduring in some cases, contrasting other cases of temporary memory loss. There has never been a particular treatment for amnesia though some effective techniques such as enhancing memory psychologically and memory support. These techniques help people and families in coping with amnesia disorder.
There are various symptoms associated with amnesia disorder. Some are main, and others are minor. The main feature of amnesia symptoms includes experiencing difficulty when learning new information, and it is referred to as the amnesia onset called anterograde amnesia. Another major feature is experiencing difficulty in remembering past events and information that is familiar. This is known as retrograde amnesia. Most people suffering from amnesia disorder experience problems related to short-term memory since they are incapable to recall any fresh data. They tend to lose any recent memories. For instance, someone may recall the names of past presidents but cannot recall the name of the current president (Harrison et al., 2017). The isolated memory is not associated with any effects on a person's intelligence, attention, general knowledge, identity, awareness, and judgment. People with amnesia are capable of understanding verbal and inscribed words; therefore, they can study expertise such as piano playing and bike riding. Amnesia's symptoms are different from those of dementia. Amnesia disorder is also associated with severe patterns of forgetfulness. The additional signs and symptoms of amnesia include disorientation or confusion and false memories
The Mechanisms in The Brain That Are Involved
There are several mechanisms in the brain involved in causing amnesia. For instance, psychological trauma causes dissociative amnesia disorder, which has a different effect on loss-making memory people to replay what has happened to them. In this context, people cannot forget what has previously happened to them, and it keeps on haunting them. Another mechanism that occurs in the brain that results from neurological conditions includes tumor, stroke, degenerative disease, brain infections, and anoxia, which mainly affect the brain structures implicating memory (Markowitsch et al., 2018). The use of alcohol for short can result in blackouts to an individual causing a certain syndrome known as Wernicke-Korsakoff. If a person gets to develop this condition, they find themselves having difficulty in forming any new memories. Neurological amnesia is a result of prolonged alcoholism and a temporary reduction of blood supply to the brain. Trauma makes the brain reject thoughts, information, and feelings. Tumors and strokes damage the brain, causing amnesia.
Most Common Etiology
Functional amnesia is associated with an amnesic syndrome that results in loss of memory, which includes loss of individual identity. In functional amnesia, the patients do not produce deficits intentionally in relation to conversion disorder. Self-hypnosis is a popular mechanism related to functional amnesia and conversion disorder.
Beckers, T., & Kindt, M. (2017). Memory reconsolidation interference as an emerging treatment for emotional disorders: strengths, limitations, challenges, and opportunities. Annual review of clinical psychology, 13. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5424072/pdf/emss-70616.pdf
Harrison, N. A., Johnston, K., Corno, F., Casey, S. J., Friedner, K., Humphreys, K., ... & Kopelman, M. D. (2017). Psychogenic amnesia: syndromes, outcome, and patterns of retrograde amnesia. Brain, 140(9), 2498-2510. http://sro.sussex.ac.uk/id/eprint/69332/1/Psychogenic%20Amnesia%20-%20Syndromes%2C%20outcome%2C%20and%20patterns%20of%20retrograde%20amnesia.pdf
Markowitsch, H. J., Staniloiu, A., Kordon, A., & Sarlon, J. (2018). Minor brain damage and somatic complaints accompanied by excessive long-term amnesia: psychological cause? Psychological Applications and Trends, 34. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Khaoula_Mammad/publication/324993731_self-esteem_and_depression_in_adolescents_who_consume_psychoactive_substances/links/5b12a1654585150a0a619955/self-esteem-and-depression-in-adolescents-who-consume-psychoactive-substances.pdf#page=61
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