Discussion Question 1
The ability of modern medicine to prolong life has raised a variety of difficult legal, ethical, and social issues, leading to different opinions about euthanasia and deep coma, permanent injury and huge finances (Paulson et al., 2014). An ethical-legal dilemma can cause distress to the person handling an issue. It is important for one to understand the ethical principles of the profession, one is working in to avoid getting into problems with the law is important. People have different personality types and handle issues according to their personality type (Costa & Widiger, 2002).
Beauchamp and Childress, Four Main Principles of Biomedical Ethics, autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence and justice, which cover a broad consideration of medical ethics, generally, and not for clinical practice only (Childress, 2001). According to Sampson and Makela (2014), there are more than four principles, which are Autonomy, Beneficence, non-maleficence, fidelity, justice, and paternalism.
Discussion Question 2
Issues that would affect passage of an amendment to the U.S. healthcare law and how each of them would support a change are:
Social issues involve cultural and religious beliefs and practices of people in a certain community, which determine how they react to change in their lifestyles or rules and regulations imposed on them. The decision on whether to accept or resist the changes. People in a community or society believe in their culture, and any strange behavior or practices from another society may be considered abnormal. Psychiatrists and Psychologists follow the Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders to classify the kinds of disorders in patients (American Psychiatric Association, 2000).
The Political influence of the leaders may contribute the outcome of a meeting or plan. If a person from a different society applies his/her cultural values and views in the area he/she is visiting, it may be considered wrong or abnormal, causing the residents of that area to get distressed or disturbed (Nolen-Hoeksema, 2004).
Political and social changes in the country such as political instability and after effects of war may affect the way people in that country behave after that. The war victims may suffer an experience of post-traumatic disorders and change in attitude (Cardozo & Vergara, 2000).
Legal issues may result if citizens of a nation or employees of an organization fail to adhere to the laws, rules and regulations set out for them. This may lead to serious legal implications for the authorities concerned (Sampson & Makela, 2014). The financial or economic standing of a person or institution may determine the resources available for them and influence the amendment to go through or fail.
Ethical-legal issues facing the courts and public involve courts proving that the suspects or accused people committed the crimes in their right minds. It would be wrong to convict a person of a crime committed when one is not in a normal state (Allen & Iacono, 2001).
Discussion Question 3
A broad consideration of medical ethics, generally, and not for clinical practice only, includes choices that the doctor might make using the four principles of autonomy - beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice (Childress, 2001). Consider a case study of a clinician who is distressed by dealing with a youth suffering from a sexually transmitted disease that may cause harm to her or others in the society (Jake, 2010). Explain how the clinician can use the Four Principles of Biomedical Ethics by Beauchamp and Childress.
BIBLIOGRAPHY American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of mental disorders, 4th Ed. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Press.
Allen, J. B., & Iacono, W. G. (2001). Assessing the validity of amnesia in dissociative identity disorder: a dilemma for the courts. Psychology, Public Policy & Law, 7, 311-344.
Cardozo, B., & Vergara, A. (2000). Mental health social functioning, and attitudes of Kosovar Albanians following the war in Kosovo. Journal of the American Medical Association, 284, 569-577.
Childress, B. A. (2001). The four principles of biomedical ethics. Retrieved April 27, 2015, from www.ukcen.net: http://www.ukcen.net/index.php/ethical_issues/ethical_frameworks/the_four_principles_of_biomedical_ethics
Costa, P. T., & Widiger, T. (2002). Personality Disorders and the Five-Factor Model of Personality (2nd Ed.). Washington D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Jake, S. A. (2010). An Application of Medical Ethics Principles; Case study teaching in Science, University at Buffalo State. New York: University of New York.
Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (2004). Abnormal Psychology, Third Edition. New York: McGraw-hill.
Paulson, S. et al. (2014). Prolonging life; legal, ethical and social dilemmas. New York: Wiley-Blackwell.
Sampson, J., & Makela, J. P. (March 2014). Ethical Issues Associated with Information and Communication Technology in Counseling and Guidance. International Journal of Educational and Vocational Guidance,4(1): 135-148.
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