|Type of paper:||Literature review|
|Categories:||Teaching School Languages Language development|
The study analyzed the development of Arabic and English in an IB primary school in Jordan. The aim of the study was to develop context-sensitive recommendations to support the development of Arabic and English in that school by answering the following question: What are teachers, parents and school official's perceptions, preferences and practices regarding the development of Arabic and English in an IB primary school in Jordan?
The paper examined the concept of IB schools around the world focusing on Jordan. The chapter addressed parents' and teachers' opinions, preferences, and practices on bilingual education in IB schools. It presented information from secondary research on how to implement two languages within an education system also how parents and teachers can support the adaptation of bilingualism. The section identified the different bilingual models used to implement bilingualism.
2.1 IB Schools Globally
International Baccalaureate (IB) is a mode of learning which provides international education that emphasizes personal and academic development among learners. It fulfills the educational needs of individuals from the age of 3 to 19 (Dvir et al., 2018). There are four main programs within IB, which include primary years, middle years, diploma, and career-related. The advantage of the learning technique is that it ensures individuals grow in various aspects, such as mentally and emotionally. The IB program got established in 1968 through the International Baccalaureate Organization (IBO) (Dvir et al., 2018). It is an institution situated in Geneva, Switzerland, but it does not rely on the country's policies to conduct its operations. Statistics indicate that more than 5, 278 schools offer IB programs in 158 countries across the globe (Dvir et al., 2018). Over the years, the number of learning institutions implementing the mode of education increased in various parts of the world. Foreign parents prefer to take their children to IB schools since they focus on developing learners' knowledge rather than their memory capabilities (Velliaris, 2014). It allows students to choose their learning materials. The learning model tends to be more practical than others, which include ICSE.
2.2 IB Schools in Jordan
Jordan is one of the regions that provides high-quality education within Arabic nations. Over the years, Jordan invested in developing its public education system. In the current times, it has the most advanced education curriculum within the Arabic world (Amr, 2011). Most of the academic institutions within the region have international students hence comprise of various nationalities or races within the IB programs. Jordan's educational facilities have well-qualified instructors, quality resources, and useful IB courses to ensure that they provide the best academic services in the Arabic region. For example, the International Academy offers both IB diploma and programs at middle years level. Jordan consists of four schools approved under the Council of Internal Schools, which provide a wide range of courses such as A-levels and IGSCEs (Smadi et al., 2020). The private education sector offers its services to around 30 percent of students who live in Amman (Richardson, 2019). It is important to note that parents must allow their children to acquire education who are within the age group of six to fifteen years. Its capital city, Amman, has several international schools that offer various IB programs. Eighteen learning institutions offer the IB diploma package to the youth (Richardson, 2019). Public schools within Jordan teach only in Arabic, which forces international students to attend private learning institutions, which tend to be highly expensive.
2.3 Developing Two Languages in IB Schools
A majority of students in IB schools are international learners; hence the concept of bilingual education applies in the education system. Bilingualism is a technique that allows learning institutions to adapt to different cultural values since teachers, students, and parents get introduced to new languages hence encourages diversity. The goal of implementing bilingual education in IB schools is that it facilitates social interactions and maximizes the intellectual development of both local and international students (Nguyen, 2017). There are various strategies that learning facilities can employ when developing two languages into their curriculum. For example, the use of teachers from diverse cultural backgrounds hence has different preferences and language understanding-the use of a learning approach that encourages students to acquire knowledge with easiness. For example, the technique allows trainers to teach learners at an individual level. It can enhance the efficiency of bilingual education since IB schools have students from various cultures, which can make it challenging to learn a new language. IB schools have two criteria when selecting individuals that should receive a bilingual diploma after completing the course. For instance, a learner should earn a grade 3 and higher in two languages or achieve a high score of 3 and above in two subjects learned in different styles (Solano-Campos, 2017). It is important to note that the idea of bilingualism can adapt in various IB courses such as primary years, middle years, and diplomas. IB schools have a language policy whereby students and teachers can practice bilingualism. It involves the incorporation of working and access language within the institutions. Most of IB learning institutions employ languages such as English and French as the main working languages while the rest are access languages that enforce a diverse community (Bialystok, 2018).
2.4 Developing Two Languages in The Amman IB Primary School
The Amman IB primary school is a private learning institution under the Jordanian Ministry of Education. The facility prepares its students to continue with the IB diploma and career-related courses. It got established in 1981 to give a bilingual education of high quality while focusing on its Arab heritage (Solano-Campos, 2017). The school has a learning model that provides the four IB programs in both Arabic and English languages. Over the years, the schools attracted students from foreign nations. Statistics prove that the academic facility has around 1,180 students from the age of four years to eighteen (Amman IB school, 2020). Several policies and techniques can facilitate the development of two languages within the IB curriculum. The Amman primary school implements current education policies into running its curriculums. For example, the facility introduces new learning methods and techniques that focus on bilingualism. It allows its learners to understand various cultures, which enhances inclusivity within the institution. The institution acts as a pioneer since it develops strategies and policies that other schools later implement into their systems. The bilingual learning system is complicated; hence the institution employs the concept of providing academic needs to students at an individual level through the use of the 1:6 technique (Amman IB school, 2020). The strategy involves the use of one teacher to provide learning services to six students, which allows both local and international learners to grow intellectually. The school employs teachers from diverse cultural backgrounds and highly trained to ensure the success of the bilingual education system.
There are two types of bilingualism, which are active and passive bilingualism (Prado et al., 2018). The difference is that active bilingualism is the ability of individuals to speak and understand two languages with easiness while passive is when a person can only speak one language but has knowledge of another. Bilingual individuals are people who can speak and write in two linguistics, while monolingual people can understand more than two.
3.1 How Two Languages Can Be Implemented in A School
Palviainen et al. (2016) conducted a study that focused on examining the techniques that teachers use when providing bilingual services to children at the pre-school level. The research indicated that instructors support the idea of two languages among young students by incorporating the aspect of flexibility. The investigation also stated that there is a presence of strictness when separating linguistics to ensure that learners develop the two languages at the same time. The education systems involve modifications to ensure that students do not get mentally tired due to their tender age. For example, the use of individual learning to allow instructors to handle each of the students' questions and weaknesses in the two languages (Palviainen et al., 2016).
Within dual-language programs, there are different concepts that learning institutions use to ensure the development of bilingual literacy. For example, the 50/50 model which involves the incorporation of both languages at an equal amount throughout the curriculum (Prado et al., 2018). It illustrates that there is a fair division of lessons into the two styles to ensure comprehension. There is also the 90/10 concept, which favors the learning of one language than the other within class sessions. School administrations can introduce the method of dividing subjects into different styles.
Studies indicate that there are schools that teach all subjects in English except for two or three courses where they also implement Spanish or Arabic (Prado et al., 2018). For example, biology and technology. Teachers should employ a series of practices to ensure the development of two or more languages within a classroom (Mazari & Derraz, 2016). The first step is to learn more about the students by surveying at the beginning of the program. It ensures that instructors collect comprehensive details such as the learners' strengths and weaknesses, their communication knowledge also the types of languages that they can speak fluently (Mazari & Derraz, 2016). The data can allow the instructors to develop strategies that can be effective in ensuring the development of multilingualism within the classroom. Instructors need to understand that multilingual learns have diverse perspectives hence employ the use of discussions to identify their views and perceptions on various languages. The next stage is for instructors to apply the use of feedbacks after handing out assignments and school projects to ensure the aspect of improvement. Teachers should encourage students to ask questions on an individual level to ensure that all learners are at the same linguistic level. Teachers should employ languages that differ in sentence structure, pronunciation, and vocabulary. It eradicates the idea of confusion among new learners. It is essential to select linguistics that one can notice the differences to avoid stagnation during training.
3.2 Techniques That Support the Learning of Two Or More Languages
IB schools have enabled cultural diversity within the school due to the administration of international students from different cultures (Walker, 2012). Enabling high student involvement during class activities. There are practices that instructors can implement to encourage participation and improve the perceptions of the parents concerning bilingual studies in Jordan. For example, holding meetings with the parents to highlight the positive effects of bilingualism and how they can be involved to improve the learning process by the students.
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