Title: Critique of a Quantitative Nursing Research Report
Yes, the title of the research paper is a good one as it encapsulates all the relevant information that is required as far as the study is concerned.
Yes, the abstract clearly and concisely summarizes the main features of the report which are the problem, the methods, the results, and the conclusions. The purpose of this report is to discuss the effectiveness of nursing counseling on coping and depression in infertile women undergoing in vitro fertilization. The efficacy of the counseling was then noted as a result of the significant observable differences made during the study. The role of nursing practice was also well-outlined with regards to the abstract.
Statement of the Problem
Yes, the statement of the problem is stated unambiguously and is very easy to identify. Infertility is always viewed as a major drawback in marriages, and the blame is ever bent on the womens side. Ultimately, other communities believe that the essence of being in a marriage is to have children, as a real family is meant to be complete by the inclusion of children. Issues to do with infertility have drastic effects on women, causing them to have emotional distresses, difficulties in interpersonal relationships, and to avoid social interactions.
Yes, the problem statement builds a cogent and persuasive argument for the new study. According to several studies conducted by various researchers, women with the infertility disorder show sub-clinically high scores for anxiety and depression. The only option remaining as a resort for infertile women is in vitro fertilization (IVF), which is presumed to raise their hopes of being pregnant. Despite the positive influence the treatment has on the infertile women, the diagnosis and treatment procedures are money- and time-consuming. Additionally, the process of treatment can be stressful and tiresome for the women who are given interventions repeatedly.
Yes, the problem has significance for nursing in the sense that nurses have an important role to play in offering counseling services as well as their nursing services for infertile women. The nurses always stand with the women at all stages of IVF treatment from the onset of the intervention procedures. The women in the study group also enjoyed routine nursing care services from the nurses, these comprised of a description of doses, administration of the medicines, drawing blood samples, and preparation of the women for ultrasound and collection of oocytes.
There is a good match between the research problem and the paradigm and the methods used. The quantitative approach is appropriate; the methodology of the study entailed a quasi-experimental design. The study carried out in Ankara at the Gazi University IVF Center involved made use of the services of five obstetrics and gynecology specialists, three embryologists, one consultant urologist, and two nurses from the center. All the medical practitioners who took part in this research were qualified with doctorate degrees and above.
Hypotheses or Research Questions
The research questions are explicitly stated; they were as follows:
1. How is the rate of depression correlated with family support among infertile couples?
2. How does social interactions affect the victims of infertility when asked questions about their condition?
3. What coping strategies do the infertile women use to relieve themselves of stress?
4. Is counseling a better approach of dealing the depression and coping strategies?
Before commencement of the treatment, the pretests and the study questionnaires were distributed to both groups under study on their first day. Before the embryo transfer process, posttests were performed; having in mind that the period between the performance of pre- and post- tests was 12 days approximately. The women who took part as the study group are the ones who received the counseling services from the two nurses who work at the IVF treatment center at Gazi University. No additional fee was required from the couples to carry out the counseling program. After administration of the study questionnaires and the pretests, the infertile women in the study group took part in structured counseling at the treatment center. The activities which were conducted on the counseling program included an approximately 60 minutes long group education session administered by the obstetrics and gynecologic nursing faculty; approximately 20 minutes long interviews which were set up at a personal level by the psychiatric nursing faculty carried out twice for each participant to evaluate and meet her coping needs. The second session of the counseling program had a lot of involvements; at times when the support of the husband was needed during the session, he was invited over to take part in the program. Techniques about how the women could relax at such times when they felt like they had a lot of burden on their shoulders were taught. Ultimately, the participants had an active involvement in the sharing out of their feelings, psychosocial distress, concerns, and coping strategies. Staying with the participants was initiated as a means to support them, incorporating the relaxation techniques which they were taught during the first education session.
Review of the Literature
Yes, the literature review is up-to-date and based mainly on primary sources. Women who undergo IVF treatment use different strategies for coping at diverse stages of the treatment. The coping strategies for infertile women are divided into two distinct subgroups namely problem-solving strategies and emotional coping strategies. Among the emotional coping strategies are activities like crying, avoidance, or denial; these entail responses aimed at maintaining the emotional balance. Emotional coping strategies also aim at having control over emotions which are related to the stressors. On the other hand, problem-solving strategies which principally involve thinking of the IVF treatment indirectly comprise efforts which are meant to deal with or to change stress sources. These stress management strategies and psychological issues have been observed to have an effect on the womens well-being, daily-life quality, and marital relationships.
Yes, the review provides a state-of-the-art synthesis of evidence on the research problem. Taking consideration of all the atrocities women undergo during IVF treatment, they require attention at whatever level. Disruption of a womans daily life by stress calls for counseling as an immediate way of dealing with the issue affecting her well-being.
Yes, the key concepts are adequately defined conceptually as counseling is an essential requirement for infertile couples who are under distress, and these couples who have marital problems are approached better if the help they get psychologically is not described as therapy. The study was conducted to navigate the effectiveness of counseling by nurses so as to improve the coping strategies and to alleviate the depression underwent by infertile women on IVF treatment program.
Yes, all the research questions and hypotheses are addressed in the analyses. . The number of women who first appeared for the interview about the IVF treatment program was 84; the number was divided into two groups equally, the study group and the comparison group. The study group entailed the women who were given counseling services while the comparison group was made up of women who did not receive counseling services. A comparison was therefore made amongst these two groups to determine if the counseling services were of an essence to infertile couples undergoing IVF treatment. Unfortunately, due to lack of sperm, 17 women could not be able to progress to the stage that involved the embryo transfer; this left 67 women to carry out the study, amongst which 37 were in the study group and the remaining 30 in the comparison group.
Yes, appropriate statistical methods were used with regards to the measurement variables given and the numbers of groups compared. Among the measures which were taken note of during the study were the questionnaires; this incorporated the demographics of the women and their infertility history. To measure the womens depression levels, the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) was an essential parameter. Ultimately, the Jalowiecs Coping Strategies Form was used to measure the coping strategies. The depression levels were measured on a scale that indicated the implication of the IVF treatment on the infertile women from the study group. The scores on the scale range between 0-63 with the highest scores indicating higher depression levels of the patient. The reliability and validity of the test measures for depression and the coping strategies were tested by Savasir and Sahin (1997) and Gurhan in 1995 respectively.
A powerful analytic method was used; this was the Cronbach alpha scale. According to the scale for measuring the depression levels was .77 while that of measuring the coping strategies was .73 for the present study. The Jalowiecs Coping Strategies Form measures both the emotional coping strategies and the problem-solving abilities of the patients when they face stress. Additionally, the form composed of forty questions; twenty measuring emotional coping while the other twenty measures problem-solving abilities; both rated on a 5-point scale. With regards to the coping strategies scale, higher scores provided an indication that there was a higher utilization of the coping strategies which are outlined in the scale. According to Santos (1999), the Cronbach alpha scale is an accurate tool for measuring the reliability of scales.
There were no errors while carrying out the study. The statistical analyses acquired from the study were performed through the use of the SPSS 11.0 software. The descriptive findings from the data collected were given either as averages or frequencies. The chi-square test was used to analyze the relations between the categorical variables and the groups. On the other hand, the comparison of the values of the pre- and posttests was made by the paired t-test of the samples. Ultimately, the independent samples t-test was used to analyze the differences between the groups. The value which was considered statistically significant was a p-value of .05 or less.
Yes, information about statistical significance was presented. Unfortunately, the information about the effect size and precision estimates (confidence intervals) was not provided. The confidence level enables to determine the authenticity of the results.
Yes, the findings are adequately summarized with the use of tables.
Yes, the findings are reported in a manner that facilitates a meat-analysis, and it also incorporates sufficient information needed for EBP.
Interpretation of Findings
Yes, all the major findings are interpreted and discussed within the context of the prior research. The results from Table 1 show that the women in the comparison and study group were aged mostly between 30-39 years, and their average age was 33.3 years (Standard Deviation= 5.40). The average length of marriage was 10.3 years with a standard deviation of 6.0. Another observation made from the study sample was that a lot of women had completed higher education.
No, there were no causal references. Most participants pointed out that they feel more distressed whenever they are questioned about their infertility condition in a situation that is socially interpersonal. Additionally, they also stated that their relatives and acquaintances are the ones who are fond of questioning about their reason for being infertile and they (the participants) most preferably would not like answering such types of questions (Table 2).
Yes, the interpretations are very consistent with the results. The results from Table 3 and 4 show the evaluation of the effectiveness of counseling service on depression and coping strategies in infertile women. No observable statistical difference was made from the results with regards to the coping strategies and the levels of depression in the women who underwent IVF treatment.
Yes, the report addresses the issue of generalizability of the findings. Consequently, no observable difference was noted between the two groups involved in the study with regards to age, lengths of marriage, duration of infertility, and education. Notably, 55.2% of the women came for treatment from different cities. From the first interview, the investigators were able to obtain information about the participants concerns, and their distress regarding infertility.
Yes, the researcher discusses the implications of the study for clinical practice and the implications are very reasonable and complete. The results from both the study group and the comparison group show no significant difference which makes the results reliable. Previous studies have shown that infertile women have had mild to moderate levels of depression which are consistent with the results obtained from the present study. Another implication of the study was that many infertile women had a lot of withdrawal issues from their friends for appearing for a study. It is always obvious that infertile women have less options to resort to as far as their condition is concerned; IVF for instance.
Yes, the report is well-written, well-organized, and sufficiently detailed for critical analysis. All the relevant information required is well-presented; the flow of the report is also consistent with the requirements of a good research report.
In the intervention studies there a table was provided instead of a chart to show the flow of participants in the study.
Yes, all the information in the report is easily accessible to the practicing nurses as their role is also well-specified with regards to counseling women who are undergoing IVF treatment.
Yes, the nursing faculty practitioners from the IVT treatment center meet all the requirements in terms of qualifications and experience; therefore, the findings obtained in this study are undisputed. Social distress is also a lead cause of the many cases of high blood pressure which augment reported cases of diabetes which derail the economy from levels as low as the family to the high levels of the world. As much as IVF treatment has been used to help infertile couples to satisfy their longtime desire of having children, other communities still oppose its existence in the human race.
Yes, the results obtained from the study are consistent with studies that have been previously carried, therefore they are valid. Immediate attention therefore needs to be given to infertile couples even when they are undergoing IVF treatment as not taking this into consideration risks the life of the woman and reduces their chances of giving birth suppose they get pregnant. Consequently, providing moral support for infertile couples is a better approach towards their coping with their condition and alleviating their depression; they ought not to feel left out whatsoever the case as this derails them psychologically.
Yes, the study contributes meaningful evidence that can be used in nursing practice. Counseling patients at moments when they feel they are losing is a better measure that can save lots of lives. IVF treatment remains a better measure of helping infertile women to have children; this ultimately calls for a lot of attention in initiating the intervention procedures for the victims. Eradication of challenges facing the treatment process such as lack of sperm for the procession to the embryo stage will so much help to alleviate the demographics observed in infertile women. Nurses remain supportive to the infertile women during the intervention procedures.
Article 14 Final Critique Sp 17.pdf [MATERIAL].
Santos, J. R. A. (1999). Cronbach's alpha: A tool for assessing the reliability of scales. Journal of extension, 37(2), 1-5.
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