|Type of paper:||Essay|
|Categories:||Medicine Disorder Public health Nursing care|
Congestive Heart Failure (CHF) occurs when the heart cannot adequately pump blood to other organs in the body. The patient will learn about CHF, including possible causes and effects. The patient will also learn skills including measuring: their temperature; the presence of edema; their apical-radical pulse; and Central Venous Pressure (Smith, 1969). Further, they will learn how to administer drugs, as well as the appropriate sitting and resting positions. The importance of linen changes and infrequent baths is also essential for the patient to be aware of. Generally, they will learn how to take care of themselves without exerting themselves.
The strategies are aimed at ensuring the patient achieves a maximum understanding of their treatment. There are five key strategies. The first is to assess the patient's healthcare literacy. Then a diagnosis can be formed regarding the patient's education needs. Third, is planning, where the patient and the family, if any, become acquainted with the goals of the treatment program. The implementation may ensue, taking into account the skills that will have been taught. Finally, the evaluation will be conducted to decipher progress from areas that need improvement.
Videos and a model of the heart will be used to teach the patient about the mechanism of CHF. Written instructions will be issued and explained to the patient regarding various processes, including drug and food intake, and dealing with skin irritation caused by bandages. There will be handouts and tests issued to determine how much was understood. Discussions can be held to allow for questions and input to be issued by the patient.
It is important to treat CHF with the urgency that it calls for. Therefore, teaching should occur as soon as a diagnosis is made. The process depends on factors such as how receptive the patient is. The nurse and the patient and or their family will meet, establish a rapport, and create a convenient timetable.
The patient should avoid exerting themselves as much as possible. A relaxed ambiance is recommended in the room where learning will occur. There should be sufficient lighting that does not irritate the patient. Family members should be limited to three.
Written Plan (Outline)
The outline is essentially the teaching strategy adopted. The five steps are assessment, diagnosis, planning, implementation, and evaluation.
This step serves as an icebreaker. The nurse will probe the patient to gauge their emotional, experiential, knowledge, and physical readiness to learn. The nurse should be on the lookout for indicators of preparedness, such as asking and answering questions. Other indicators include their frame of mind, cultural background, and present knowledge base. These indicators aid the assessment by guiding the nurse on how best to teach the patient (and their family) and ensure that they understand what they learn.
This diagnosis is based on what the patient needs to be taught. The diagnosis places the patient in one of two domains: knowledge deficit or self-care deficit. Knowledge deficit relates to the lack of sufficient information concerning CHF. Self-care deficit relates to inadequate skills required to take care of a patient of CHF.
This step allows the nurse and the patient (and or their family) to set up realistic objectives concerning the learning process. In the present case, there may be four objectives:
- To ensure the patient has sufficient necessary information concerning CHF symptoms
- To ensure the patient understands terminologies linked to CHF such as enema and the Central Venous Pressure
- To ensure the patient knows the appropriate resting angle for their body and head when they lie down and seated
- To ensure the patient knows which foods they can take and which ones can trigger the symptoms of CHF
This involves taking steps toward achieving the set objectives. Both the nurse and patient must diligently participate to ensure these goals are met. The teaching tools play a major role in this stage because they are the medium through which information is passed. The success of this stage depends on how well the nurse understands the patient; and how cooperative the patient or their family is.
Evaluation assists the nurse in assessing the amount of progress they have made in teaching. The nurse can determine which goals have been met and which ones are yet to be met. This can be done by administering questionnaires. The patient or family can write and explain answers to the questions, allowing the nurse to gauge their grasp on an aspect. The nurse can use rating scales to observe the patient’s behavior. Demonstration exercises can also be carried out so that the patient demonstrates the appropriate method for skills such as first aid. This way, the nurse knows what skills and knowledge have been mastered and those that require reinforcement.
It is important to keep records of the lessons as well as the evaluation. Arranging them in chronological order makes reference easy. It also gives a clear outline of the progress made. This is only attainable when the nurse is clear and precise in their notes.
Smith, B. C., (1969). Congestive Heart Failure, The American Journal of Nursing, Vol. 69, No. 2 (Feb., 1969), pp. 278-282, Retrieved from: https://www.jstor.org/stable/3453959
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