Comparing and Contrasting Models of Program Planning

Published: 2023-01-03
Comparing and Contrasting Models of Program Planning
Type of paper:  Research paper
Categories:  Company Health and Social Care Science Food Development
Pages: 4
Wordcount: 1015 words
9 min read

The programs designed for adult learners will involve a proper decision-making process since it is a mixed method. It is because adults have different characteristics which young learners from young learners, for example, the responsibilities and the main motive that is bringing them back to learning. So organizations have to plan the adult learning programs effectively to cater to some of the barriers adults sometimes face in their learning process (Merriam, 2001). Therefore educational institutions and facilitators must have a suitable curriculum program that will help to provide for these adults to ensure an efficient and continuous learning process. Thus learning program that should be implemented must be flexible enough to meet the needs of adults.

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Adult learning in advanced planning for adult programs has been planned in such a way to accommodate the schedule of adults. Most institutions have created flexible programs that have facilitated the learning process that is more suitable for adults. In planning a program for adult learning, the issue of cultural differences must also be put into consideration. The results of globalization have led to cross border learning, and therefore researchers must put into accounts the cultural differences (Song & Hill, 2007). For example, the new generation that is mostly joining higher education mostly depends on the digital way of learning. They hence have a different view on how they think and perceive the learning process. Therefore the educator must evaluate an appropriate learning program that suits them well.

Planners of the online learning program also consider the relationship between them and the learners. Therefore proper knowledge about whom the program is being designed for should put the relationship between the learners and the institutions. Consequently, the appropriate choice of the program should first consider the binding relationship for an effective learning program to be adequately implemented. Technology has also facilitated the planning of adult programs. Technology eases the transportation costs that would instead be incurred by the adults in trying to access the education centers for learning. Also, powers and interests influence what happens with the planning process for example in the process of making decisions. The institution, therefore, sets their strategic plans which need to be implemented. Knowing such methods of the entire institution will help the planner to decide on an active learning program which will not conflict with such set plans.

Interactive Model and The Four-Level model compared

Both Interactive Model and The Four-Level Model share some similar characteristics. It ascertains that both the developers of each type shared ideas in formulating their model structure. They both used the same planning process and the roles of adults in the learning process in coming up with their models. They all involve an understanding of the situations and analyzing a proper way of how they will make efficient learning. There both structures are therefore built upon the support of their audience that is they all react positively towards the models. In model philosophy, both models authors of each model gain a deeper understanding of their subjects. They analyze and share both the needs of the organization and the learners as a whole. They are therefore all committed to satisfying the learners and a common goal of improving they are well-being. In the model framework, both authors bring their ideas, and they are all discussed in a more particular way. The time they all spent together with organizations help build relationships and also view how learners react to some of the issues. Therefore understands individuals' reactions before they can decide on the most effective way of framing the model outcomes and content. Apart from such similarities, these two models tend to have some differences.

Differences between the two models

Model Structure

Interactive Model and The Four-Level Model differ in their structure make up. The Interactive Model is circular in its structural make up (Rumelhart, 1976). You cannot easily trace where the model planning starts and ends. It is therefore assumed that learning is cyclic. The Four-Level Model recognizes that education is involved in different levels. Its structure is in a hierarchy order where it starts by analyzing the learner's reactions, the acquisition of knowledge, the behavior and lastly the results. The structure of the Four-Level model, therefore, is arranged from the lowest level to a higher level.

Models Philosophy

Planners in the interactive model use a globally integrated model that considers various adjustments and decision making. It mainly concerns with consulting and doing interviews from multiple people and a timely decision made before implementation. The interactive model, therefore, will involve making some necessary adjustments. In The Four-Level model, the planners follow the order level of in planning. They first identify how individuals react to a specific program, then their acquisition patterns, their behavioral performance and lastly their results. All these are followed in that order to help decide on a learning program that is suitable for learners.

Models Framework

Interactive model is built on a framework of underlying assumptions that ascertain learning is a continuous process. In The Four-Level model bases learning on the evaluation of four basic levels (Noe & Schmitt 1986). It, therefore, determines that education is a sequential process that is adapted and measured on the highest scale of results.

In conclusion, adult learning requires an integrated learning program which should be implemented to ensure it meets the needs of learners. Therefore to design a suitable learning program, the institutions must first of all gain thorough knowledge about the application and the audience before deciding an appropriate program. Consequently, the planner must be in a position to decide on the best model to implement as they all possess some similarities and differences.


Merriam, S. B. (2001). Andragogy and selfdirected learning: Pillars of adult learning theory. New directions for adult and continuing education, 2001(89), 3-14.Noe, R. A., & Schmitt, N. (1986). The influence of trainee attitudes on training effectiveness: Test of a model. Personnel psychology, 39(3), 497-523.Rumelhart, D. E. (1976). Toward an interactive model of reading. San Diego, California: Center for Human Information Processing, University of California.

Song, L., & Hill, J. R. (2007). A conceptual model for understanding self-directed learning in online environments. Journal of Interactive Online Learning, 6(1), 27-42.

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