|Type of paper:||Essay|
|Categories:||Philosophy Healthcare Christianity Ethical dilemma|
Healthcare is one of the areas where a Christian perspective on spirituality, and ethics has a significant impact. For a long time, Christianity has been used by human beings to make ethical judgments with the belief that ethical judgments based on Christianity are always right. Christianity's ethical decisions are based on the idea of absolute power such that if something is not right, then it must be right, and nothing can change that. Almost all Christians believe that they must be compassionate, and they use this as the base when providing healthcare to other people (Shelly & Miller, 1999). Numerous Christian groups have established healthcare institutions across the world, and these facilities follow Christian traditions. For instance, the Catholic Health Association of the United States (CHA) has over 500 hospitals that have been established across the country, and these hospitals follow Christian traditions (Admon & Villavicencio, 2020). It is common to find healthcare practitioners in these hospitals praying for their patients as they believe that by praying, God will heal the patient.
Postmodern relativism, on its part, describes time as a subjective reality, and this is the opposite of a Christian perspective. Right or wrong, according to this view, is not changeable, and this means that reasoning rather than absolute truth is considered. (Hauer, 2013) Followers of postmodern relativism hold that when one is sick, they take medication to cure their illnesses. Nevertheless, if they fail to heal and they die, then it is so because the disease has taken over and not because God has decided that their time on earth is over. One could say that postmodern relativism weakens religion and instead strengthens the perspective of the individual.
Scientism and two of the main arguments against it
Scientism is a theory that stipulates that knowledge is only valid if it comes from positive sciences. The proponents of this theory express ideas as characteristics of science, and this is the reason this theory expresses science as a source of knowledge that is superior to any other source (Daly, 2011). Consequently, scientism is adamant that people should only view the world from a scientific perspective. All matters of human concern in one way or the other are linked to scientific methods, practices, and ideas in a bid to derive relevance and determine normative values. Therefore according to this theory, religion, morality, and any other factors cannot be used to define what is right and wrong as this can only be through scientific proof. Usually, scientism advances knowledge that one can explain why things happen the way they do through scientific information and not mere theories. This, in turn, means that scientism as a theory takes any other branch of learning (Daly, 2011).
A major argument in this theory is that science as a source is supplemented by other nonscience sources such as memory and perception. Therefore, if this is true, then how can nonscience knowledge form natural science? The other argument against scientism is the "Ship of Theseus" argument. The question here is, if a ship has all its components removed and replaced with new ones, would it be considered the same ship, or would it be an object similar to the original one? What if the old components that were removed were put back in future, would it be the original ship or does making the ship with the old material make it original? (Kim, 2018)It is an argument that shows that at times people color the world with consciousness, not by mere scientific information.
What is the ultimate reality?
Ultimate reality is the notion and belief that something is supreme and final, and nothing can dispute that. For instance, in Christianity, God is the foundation of everything that exists in the universe. Therefore, among Christians, they pray to God for help if something goes wrong. Consequently, if things are going right, then as a Christian, one should thank God. It is an example of ultimate reality which cannot be subjected to reasoning or even experience. Additionally, observation cannot be used in line with the ultimate reality. When one talks about ultimate reality, it means that they hold that something cannot be changed even when evidence or facts are presented. However, it is interesting how ultimate reality contradicts reality because reality, on its own, refers to seeing things as they are truly are.
What is the nature of the universe?
The universe, by definition, can be stated as everything that exists, including matter, energy, and people. People have continually studied the universe, making attempts to explore the universe, but still, a lot about the universe remains unknown. Therefore, it is impossible to explain the real nature of the universe when one does not know all the parts that comprise it. Furthermore, the universe is not owned by one person, just like the earth is controlled by many powers, the majority of whom oppose one another. It is a phenomenon that makes it hard to understand the real nature of the universe. Nevertheless, what is clear is that the universe overpowers itself, and it is a self-adapting machine that does not depend on humans to run it.
What is a human being?
A human being is a living creature that has a soul. A human being is different from other creatures because they can reason and think. Additionally, they can communicate with each other using various means such as language and signs. The physical appearance of a human being is also different than many other creatures in that they can walk on two legs and, at the same time, done attire to cover their bodies. Human beings also have dominion over other creations, and this, in my opinion, is the reason why other creatures suffer to the needs of human beings. Nevertheless, I believe that any human being has the capacity to love and to be loved.
What is knowledge?
In my opinion, knowledge is the act of acquiring information through a vast number of ways, including education and experience. Knowledge is a powerful tool in humanity because it defines the amount of positive or negative energy that is found in a particular individual because it not only increases one's academic or professional standings but also has the power to do the opposite. Although knowledge entails a person's ability to read and comprehend, it also includes the ability of individuals to make correct decisions in critical moments. Nevertheless, knowledge can be simple or complex, and it is important to note that it is limitless, and this is the reason why understand anything in this universe requires knowledge. As a result, even simple things that people do in their lives require knowledge. For instance, eating is a common practice in most human beings, but this activity also requires knowledge of how none ought to chew to avoid chocking. Using this instance, I believe that it is correct tom say that knowledge implies getting aware of ideas and ways of doing things to get through life smoothly.
What is your basis of ethics?
My ethics come from multiple sources. First, I always want to stay out of trouble, and this is the reason why at all times, I do my best to ensure that I do what I think is right. I do not want instances where I am scolded or punished by any authority, including my parents and teachers, and this puts me in pressure to ensure that I always do what is right. Furthermore, I do not want to be anxious or feel guilty because I have done something wrong. I also understand that there are laws that are put in place, and if I break them, I could end up in jail, and I do not want such a situation to happen to me. Also, as a Christian, I believe that I must do what is morally right, as stipulated in the bible, and when it comes to nursing, there is a code of conduct that I am supposed to follow at all times. For instance, I understand that it is wrong to disclose patients' data. In conclusion, I can say that my ethics are guided by fear, morality, and religion.
What is the purpose of your existence?
I believe that I exist to live a positive life. I strongly feel that living a positive life means helping others, and this is the reason I am a nurse. Ever since I was young, I dreamt of being a nurse, and even in my childhood, I believed that I would greatly help people through medicine, and I have achieved what I yearned to become many years ago. Nevertheless, I still know that my life extends beyond my profession, but I still know that as a nurse, I will positively impact the world.
Admon, L., & Villavicencio, J. (2020). Catholic Hospitals, Patient Autonomy, and Sexual and Reproductive Health Care in the United States. JAMA Network Open, 3(1), e1920131. doi: 10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2019.20131
Daly, G. (2011). Science, Religion, and Scientism. The Irish Review (1986-), (27), 48. doi: 10.2307/29736017
Hauer, T. (2013). Postmodern Relativism and Richard Rorty's Humanistic Philosophy. Journal Of Political Sciences & Public Affairs, 02(03). doi: 10.4172/2332-0761.1000128
Kim, D. (2018). The Ship of Theseus. JAMA, 320(16), 1712. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.7413
Shelly, J. A., & Miller, A. B. (1999). Called to care: A Christian theology of nursing. Downers Grove, Ill: InterVarsity Press.
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