Paper Example: Case Study Mr. M - Alzheimer's Disease/UTI

Published: 2023-10-09
Paper Example: Case Study Mr. M - Alzheimer's Disease/UTI
Essay type:  Proposal essays
Categories:  Medicine Mental disorder Nursing care Lifespan development Essays by wordcount
Pages: 6
Wordcount: 1557 words
13 min read

Healthcare is an essential aspect of human well-being as it helps in the effective running of our day-to-day activities. On the other hand, healthcare professionals are tasked with ensuring that patients can access quality services and that the treatment procedures administered are effective. Therefore, an RN-BSN-prepared nurse must demonstrate an enhanced understanding of the pathophysiological processes of disease, the clinical manifestations and treatment protocols, and how they affect clients across the lifespan (Alzheimer Organization, 2020). A nurse's ability to exhibit an understanding of these diagnostic aspects of a disease is essential in the overall treatment process. This research paper aims to present an understanding of these nursing essentials based on Mr. M’s case and how these essentials are essential in the overall healthcare setting.

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Clinical manifestations present in Mr. M.

Mr. M is a 70-year-old patient living in assisted living whose health vitals have deteriorated quickly in the recent past. The identified changes in his health could be attributed to the changes in his pathophysiology that take place with old age. The previous diagnosis of the patient includes high cholesterol levels and high blood pressure. Surgically, the patient has undergone a repair of a fractured tibia and an appendectomy. From the Urinalysis conducted, there was the presence of lymphocytes in the urine at 6700 cells/ul. The Urinalysis is positive for a moderate amount of leukocytes and cloudy. In the recent past, the patient has exhibited signs of difficulty remembering various basic stuff, such as; the names of people around him and those of his family members, the room in which he resides, and recalling information previously read. Mr. M has also manifested signs of quick agitation and aggressive behavior, accompanied by a show of fear.

Primary and Secondary Medical Diagnoses that should be Considered for Mr. M.

Based on the clinical manifestations identified from Mr. M’s diagnosis, there is two principal primary and secondary diagnosis that should be considered. These include; Alzheimer’s disease and a urinary tract infection (UTI) (Faulkner & Green, 2018). Based on the symptoms that the patient exhibits, it is possible to evidence that these are the main primary and secondary medical diagnoses that should be considered for Mr. M.

The possible UTI in the patient can be detected in the presence of protein in the urinalysis results. Lymphocytes 6700 (cells/uL), Urinalysis positive for a moderate amount of leukocytes and cloudy, Protein: 7.1 g/dL; AST: 32 U/L; ALT 29 U/L. As a result, Mr. M could probably have a urinary tract infection. Changes in an individual's lifestyle usually cause most UTI's. A decline in personal hygiene is a likely cause of diseases where the urinary tract may be exposed to a variety of unhygienic conditions. In his primary diagnosis, Mr. M has been diagnosed to be experiencing difficulties in activities that he was able to do comfortably for himself initially. For instance, the patient has been experiencing challenges in bathing, dressing, and feeding himself. Therefore, this is a clear indication that Mr. M may be exposed to changes in personal hygiene, which may be a predisposing factor to a UTI (Medical News Today, 2017).

In the clinical manifestations, over the past two months, Mr. M. seems to be deteriorating quickly. He is having trouble recalling his family members' names, remembering his room number, and even repeating what he has just read. He is becoming agitated and aggressive quickly. He appears to be afraid and fearful when he gets aggressive. He has been found wandering at night and will frequently become lost, needing help to get back to his room.

Alzheimer’s is a memory loss condition that is more prevalent among the old and aging population. The leading causes attributed to the state have been attributed to genetic factors as well as environmental and lifestyle conditions affecting the normal brain function. The key symptoms of Alzheimer’s disease include; memory loss that may disrupt regular life routines, forgetting, difficulty in completing familiar tasks, confusion with time, and places, among other symptoms. According to Mr. M’s recent behavioral characteristics, he exhibits similar symptoms to those outlined above. As a result, Alzheimer’s is a medical diagnosis that should be considered for Mr. M.

Expected Abnormalities in the Nursing Assessment

There are little abnormalities expected in the nursing assessment given that Mr. M’s condition and symptoms are quite evident and well-defined. However, few irregularities are expected in the nursing assessment. For instance, Mr. M’s physical mobility may be impaired, give that due to his old age and deteriorating health vitals. These abnormalities are likely to cause unprecedented treatment complications. However, following proper patient treatment procedures, it will be possible to facilitate effective healthcare practices that will help the patient lead a relatively healthy life under the assisted end-of-life care.

Physical, Psychological, and Emotional effects Mr. M.'s Current Health Status may have on him.

There are various physical, physiological, and emotional effects that Mr. M's current health status may have on him. As an individual in his old age, he is likely to experience reduced mobility and motor skills activity. This is because his muscles may tend to become rapidly exhausted as compared to his physical mobility in his previous years. As a result, Mr. M's current health condition is likely to result in reduced physical ability.

Psychologically, the patient's current health status is likely to result in reduced problem-solving skills capability and ability to carry out the various day-to-day activities. For instance, Mr. M may require specialized care to ensure that he can carry out the different daily routine activities expected of him. For example, with his difficulties in returning to his room, which often results in him getting lost at night, he might need help to ensure that he can return to his place with minimum difficulties (Ignatavicius & Workman, 2013). Psychologically, the patient is expected to experience the challenges in coping mentally with the various activities happening around him. For instance, he may require to develop a new lifestyle which will help him to better cope with the psychological changes that he is experiencing in his life.

Emotionally, Mr. M’s current health condition may have adverse effects on the patient's emotional wellbeing. As an inherent human need, Mr. M may experience reduced emotional contact as more people close to him may find it difficult to interact with him. The emotional devoid that the patient is subjected to is likely to worsen the psychological difficulties that Mr. M is experiencing.

Interventions that can be put into place to Support Mr. M. and his Family

When a family member starts expecting end of life care needs, it may be difficult for the immediate family to cope with the changes taking place. As a result, for the family, awareness creation and ensuring that Mr. M’s family members are brought to terms with the various changes they are expected to witness in Mr. M would be an essential intervention. Given that the patient is likely to be suffering from Alzheimer’s disease, his inability to remember individual family members may result in the development of estranged relationships where some family members may think that it could be ignorance. However, through the creation of awareness among the family members, it will be possible for the family to cope with his memory loss and other related ailments.

Actual or Potential Problems Mr. M Faces Given his Current Condition.

The most common problem that most patients under the end of life care experience neglect are family members and lack of emotional connection with the people around them. This develops as a result of the difficulties experienced by family members and other acquaintances in the establishment of meaningful interactions. As a result, Mr. M is likely to experience the challenges in the creation and maintenance of new relationships as time progresses (Mayo Clinic, 2020). However, this can be avoided by utilizing note-taking. A personal handbook could be essential in ensuring that he can keep track of the various activities that he has on his schedule.

Mr. M is likely to experience actual problems, given his current condition is adjusting and adapting to his new way of life. Most patients undergoing end of life care have been identified to experience difficulties such as denial, where they may find it challenging to come to terms with the new reality. The nurses in charge of administering care to Mr. M should, therefore, take up the initiative to ensure that the patient understands the changes taking place in his life and how he can effectively adapt to his changing lifestyle and ensure that he can develop a lifestyle that enables him to lead a relatively healthy life.


Alzheimer Organization. (2020). 10 Early signs and symptoms of Alzheimer’s. Retrieved from

Faulkner, A., & Green, S., A. (2018). Neurological, perceptual, and cognitive complexities. In Grand Canyon University (Eds.), Pathophysiology clinical applications for client health. Retrieved from

Ignatavicius, D. D., & Workman, M. L. (2013). Medical-surgical nursing: Patient-centered collaborative care (7th ed.). St. Louis, MO: Elsevier.

Mayo Clinic. (2020). Urinary tract infection (UTI). Symptoms. Retrieved from

Medical News Today. (2017). Urosepsis: What to know about UTI complications. Retrieved from

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