There are various types of skin wounds that people encounter in their day-to-day life. Some of them are a result of colonization, while others result from some infection. The skin wound adopted for this review is the bruises. They are the patches that appear when the capillaries or the tiny blood vessels burst or break underneath. On fair skin, the spots are commonly purple or bluish-colored. On darker skin, they might be black, brownish, or dark purple colored. Discoloration occurs due to leakage of blood from the capillaries into the soft tissues under the skin. In other words, bruises are caused by internal breading, which might occur as a result of injury from hard pumps or falls. Although anyone can get bruises, some people, such as older people are more vulnerable to bruises since the tissue underneath is more fragile and the skin is thinner.
Ice therapy is one of the most effective methods that can be used to treat bruises. Unlike other types of skin wounds, injuries are not an indication of infection other than blood leaking from broken vessels. As such, the treatment should aim at reducing blood leakage into the surrounding tissues. When ice is applied to the affected area immediately after the injury, it helps to reduce blood flow around the affected region (Urakov, 2020). According to Bird et al. (2017), a cooling blood vessel can help ensure that minimal blood leaks out of the broken capillaries. It will help to reduce swelling and prevent the bruise from being apparent. Compression is also another effective remedy for bruises. It involves wrapping the bruised area with an elastic bandage—compression therapy works by squeezing the tissues hence preventing the capillaries from leaking. Compression therapy can help reduce swelling as it lessens the severity of the bruise.
Though the above-discussed remedies might be useful for younger people, they are not recommended for older people. To start with, applying ice on the skin of older people might lead to more complications. As Urakov (2020) stated, older adults have a low body immune, which makes their bodies vulnerable to diseases. Applying ice on their skin can easily lead to cold-related illnesses, and hence it should be avoided. Compression therapy is also not recommended for older people. As discussed above, this remedy involves compressing the bruised area with elastic bondage to prevent vessel leakage. However, as people grow old, their skin becomes thinner, and tissues that support blood vessels also become fragile. It implies that compression therapy might lead to more complications. Nevertheless, some remedies are effective for older adults.
Arnica is one of the best treatments of bruises among older adults. It is a homeopathic herb best known for its ability to reduce swelling and inflammation. As such, it is also useful in the treatment of bruises. According to a study by Stevinson et al. (2017), laser-induced bruising can be reduced by topical arnica ointment. Arnica gel or lotion can be applied on the bruise a few times a day, and it can also be taken orally. Vitamin K cream, a vital nutrient that improves blood clotting, can also be effective among older people. By gently rubbing it on the bruised area, it reduces the severity of a bruise (Shah et al., 2018)
Several things can lead to the development of bruises, such as falling being hit by an object or sleeping on bumpy objects. Generally, any impact that damages blood capillaries can cause injuries. However, though bruising is a common phenomenon, easy bruising can be caused by several factors. To start with, bruising is an aging syndrome, whereas people glow old, blood vessel weakens and becomes prone to rupture. Some medications, such as antibiotics and aspirin, can also lead to easy bruising. Besides, some dietary supplements can act as blood thinners and increase bruising impact. Some disorders that reduce the clotting of blood can also make someone bruise easily. To prevent bruises, especially among older adults, blood thinner supplements and medications that lead to easy bruising should be avoided. Taking dietaries that can help to improve blood clotting can also prevent easy bruising (Urakov, 2020). Ensuring that older people do not sleep on bumpy surfaces is also an excellent preventive measure for bruises.
Bruises are a common occurrence for all people. It is a condition caused by the breakage of blood vessels, causing blood leakage underneath. However, since older people's skin is usually thin and the underlying tissues weak, they are more prone to bruises. As it may, bruises can be treated by reducing blood licking from broken blood capillaries. Remedies with fewer side effects are, however, recommended for older people.
Bird, S., Bird, S. R., Black, N., & Newton, P. (2017). Sports injuries: causes, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Nelson Thornes.
Shah, N. S., Lazarus, M. C., Bugdodel, R., Hsia, S. L., He, J., Duncan, R., & Baumann, L. (2018). The effects of topical vitamin K on bruising after laser treatment. Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology, 47(2), 241-244.
Stevinson, C., Devaraj, V. S., Fountain-Barber, A., Hawkins, S., & Ernst, E. (2017). Homeopathic arnica for prevention of pain and bruising: randomized placebo-controlled trial in hand surgery. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 96(2), 60-65.
Urakov, A. (2020). What are bruises? Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment, Remedies. IP International Journal of Comprehensive and Advanced Pharmacology, 5(1), 1-5.
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