The athlete's body composition should be as follows. They should weigh around 180 lbs and have a skeletal mass of about 97 lbs (Ghiasvand et al., 2017). Their body mass should be approximately 10 lbs, and their body mass index should be approximately 25 kg/m2 while the percentage of body fat should be about 5%.
Daily Caloric Expenditure Range
A top athlete needs the correct number of calories to produce high performance and to regain their fitness to be ready every time. Intake of calories depends on the muscle mass that an individual has on them. It means that the more the muscle, the more the calories intake. Workout also affects an athlete's calorie intake, and it should be planned to push them throughout their exercise plan during the day. Eating fewer calories for an extended period is a compromise on performance. It reduces muscle power and the lean muscle mass that is needed to maintain shape and be strong all the time (Ghiasvand et al., 2017). Calories are from foods rich in carbohydrates, including desserts, milk products, vegetables, fruits, and juices, potatoes, rice, pasta, cereals, and whole grains. The following is a daily caloric expenditure range for the athlete:
|Training Calories/pound||180 pounds|
|Low or none 14||2800 – 3300|
|Limited 17||3500 – 3900|
|Moderate 20||4100 – 4600|
|High 23||4800 – 5200|
|Extreme 27 or more||5500 – 6500|
Bioenergetics: Anaerobic- Immediate Energy System
In the immediate anaerobic energy system, the body does not utilize oxygen. The energy system provides maximum power up to 8 seconds, and it does so by chemical reactions of ATP with creatine phosphate. It is useful as a source of explosive energy, and an athlete requires it. Explosiveness is minimized by high aerobic training as it limits the twitching of muscle fibers.
It is an anaerobic system that breaks down the creatine phosphate without oxygen. The phosphate in creatine phosphate is used to synthesize ATP (adenosine troposphere). Phosphate creatine is of high energy, and it is the first process. The ATP-PC system is crucial for short exercises, like the explosive ones, for example, short sprints that work the muscle fibers. It is essential because it is immediate and is highly reactive (Ghiasvand et al., 2017). However, the storage of creatine phosphate is limited as it has to be resynthesized again. It has a low capacity, but it is of a high rate. The following is a summary of the ATP-PC System;
The system Does not use oxygen
- Activity intensity - High intensity
- Dominant time - Up to 10 seconds
- Top power - 4 seconds
The rate of ATP production is High because of small chemical reactions
- Capacity - Small
- Excretions ADP and inorganic phosphates
- Recovery - Low up to 30 seconds
- Disadvantages - Stores little ATP and creatine phosphate
- Recreates little amount of ATP
- Advantages - Short chemical reactions
- Supports high-intensity activities
- Recreates ATP immediately
It is the synthesis of glycogen without utilizing oxygen. It can also be referred to as ATP re-synthesis, and it is useful during activities of high intensity. The breakdown of glycogen without oxygen, the process releases lactic acid as a by-product, which causes fatigue. The following is a summary of the anaerobic glycolysis system.
System Without oxygen
- Activity intensity - High up to 85%
- Dominant time - Up to 60 seconds
- Top power - Up to 15 seconds
- ATP - Minimal
- Rate of ATP production - High
- ATP yield - Minimal
Excretions ADP, lactic acids, and hydrogen ions
- Recovery - High
- Disadvantages Causes fatigue because of the production of hydrogen ions
- Advantages ATP is recreated at a high rate
Protein Intake Estimate
Protein is crucial for increasing muscle mass, but a lot of it is not necessary and will most likely mess up the body shape. An athlete's protein eating pattern is essential to determine their intake. An athlete needs to maintain adequate amounts of carbohydrates and fats for maximum utilization of proteins to build muscle. Muscle growth, therefore, involves a proper diet and exercise. High-quality protein is needed two hours after training like soy, dairy, fish, meat, and eggs with a combination of carbohydrates to build muscles efficiently (Penggalih & Solichah, 2019). Protein intake also depends on the intensity of training and the period of the competition. An athlete, therefore, needs up to 2 grams of protein per kilogram during training and go as low as 1.2 grams per kilogram during games or low-intensity training periods. Protein powders and supplements can be useful if the athlete does not have enough time to recover and to have a meal.
Carbohydrate Intake Estimate
An athlete requires enough energy for optimum performance. It the body does not get enough energy; the body burns body tissue and fat for fuel during exercises or competition. It results in a loss of endurance and strength and compromises the musculoskeletal, endocrine, and immune functions in the body (Penggalih & Solichah, 2019). As an athlete, sometimes one needs to lose weight, and, in those times, it is crucial to increase carbohydrate intake. Simple and complex sugars make up carbohydrates. They are useful to keep up the blood sugar levels during competition or work out. They are helpful to regenerate glycogen, which is essential for storing carbohydrates in the muscles. The carbohydrate intake estimate intake of the athlete is, therefore, 6 grams per kilograms of body weight. Good sources of carbohydrates include pasta, bread, whole-grains, vegetables, and fruits.
Fat Intake Estimate
Fat is crucial for metabolic processes in the body for optimum performance and general health. Fat is necessary for the absorption of vitamins A, D, and E. The athlete requires around 30% of fat distributed into three. It includes 10% saturated fat, 10% polyunsaturated fat, and 10% monounsaturated fat. Consuming more than 30% of fat is not beneficial to the body, and it is only a waste (Witard et al., 2019). Good sources of fat include coconut oil, olive oil, avocados, and nuts, or its kinds of butter. It is crucial to avoid or use small amounts of soybean oil, cottonseed, and corn, which are all vegetable oils.
Fluid Intake Estimate
Optimum performance requires proper hydration. An athlete needs to have a fluid intake plan. The recommended strategy is as follows. Before training, the athlete should have two cups of fluid. During training, fluid can be taken in intervals of 15 minutes, in a measure of six ounces. Fluid intake after training is affected by the amount of fluid take before and during exercises. Sixteen ounces of fluid is necessary for every pound of lost weight (Witard et al., 2019). The best fluids are 100% juice, low-fat milk, and water. The athlete can supplement with sports beverages, especially during competition, when on quick breaks.
Special Sports Nutrition and Dietary Supplement Products
Dietary supplements are essential to boost nutrition, but they should not be a substitute for a diet plan. They are needed only during high endurance exercises or in extreme environments like high altitudes or high temperatures to cover up for electrolytes and fluids lost (Witard et al., 2019). Dietary supplements improve training performance and should only be used along with a proper diet.
Ghiasvand, R., Hosseinzadeh, J., Maghsoudi, Z., Abbasi, B., Daneshvar, P., & Hojjati, A. (2017). Evaluation of dietary intakes, body composition, and Cardiometabolic parameters in adolescent team sports elite athletes: A cross-sectional study. Advanced Biomedical Research, 6(1), 107. https://doi.org/10.4103/2277-9175.213667
Penggalih, M. H., & Solichah, K. M. (2019). Dietary intake and strength training management among weight sports athlete category: Role of protein intake level to body composition and muscle formation. Asian Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 11(1), 24-31. https://doi.org/10.3923/ajcn.2019.24.31
Witard, O. C., Garthe, I., & Phillips, S. M. (2019). Dietary protein for training adaptation and body composition manipulation in track and field athletes. International Journal of Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 29(2), 165-174. https://doi.org/10.1123/ijsnem.2018-0267
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