Chapter 9: Approaches to Management
Scientific management means that the manager views the employees as machines which tend to break out or get 'worn out 'and are replaced immediately. Those who go against the management are laid off and new workers put in place. The administration is characterized by no change or progress of the output. Vertical type of communication works best, and not much communication is involved because the communication follows a single channel.
Human Relation Management refers to management where there is the sensitive consideration for the employees. Human relation management is much involved in the welfare of the employees. The employees can make suggestions to the management, but not all suggestions can be met because the management has the responsibility of balancing the needs of the employees and the organization interests. Informal and formal type of communication is employed in Human Relation Management.
The Theory X leadership presume most people had a small capacity for creativity in solving the problem. The employees in this leadership are supervised and fewer incentives offered. The leadership style is not interactive. Downward communication is employed, but in an instance of gossip, upward communication is applied.
The Theory Y leadership style not much supervision since people are self-directed and when given opportunity they can be creative. Individuals with specific knowledge, are involved in decision making. Down, up and horizontal communication is applied. Feedback is part and parcel of the leadership style.
The five primary types of leaders and communication styles;
Task leader- is a leader concerned much on the task and has fewer concerns about the people affairs. Downward communication style is employed.
Moderate Leader- has an average limit to personal issues and an adequate output opts. Up, down communication is adopted.
Social leader- a leader with high concern for the well-being of the people and lower concern on the task.
Leaderless leaders- concerned much on people compared to a low task. They avoid many communications.
Balanced leaders- They have a high concern on both task and the people serving and horizontal approach to communication is employed by balanced leaders.
Idealized leaders are versatile and consistency. They are firm in their decisions and also predictable. People know what to expect from them.
The four system of an idealized leader;
Order 1; also known as exploitive authoritative- employees are not trusted, and they do not make any decision.
System 2; cognized as benevolent authoritative- there is some trust on the employee but not tasked with significant decisions.
System 3 which is the consultative authority and employees are trusted.
System 4 is the participative authority where there is the complete confidence in employees and decision making is widespread.
The types of Management Communication Styles;
In tell management, the manager makes decisions and gives directives to the juniors.
Sell- manager makes the subordinate belief in a particular decision as true.
Consult-manager gets advice from a subordinate.
In Join management, the manager does not make any decision but all duty delegated to the juniors.
In Tell MCS unidirectional communication is adopted.
Sell-Bidirectional communication is adopted.
Consult-Bidirectional communication is employed.
Join-Horizontal communication is applied.
Why a manager selects a certain MCS:
Timeframe under which the decision is being made.
The Style which seems to be easy to use.
A status is a person's position or obligation to a particular company. Examples of the status symbol are parking spaces, having a secretary and a driver, nice furnishing.
When solidarity increases in an organization, it leads to decrease in status. Also, when solidarity level rises, communication increases.
The Seven Primary types of power;
Coercive-it is a command type of power hence it detaches the superior-subordinate communication.
Reward-There are rewards given by managers and sometimes punishment it detaches superior-subordinate communication.
Legitimate-it uses a formal hierarchy hence no superior-subordinate communication.
Referent-happens as a result of one wanting to be like another person, there is a superior-subordinate communication.
Expert- focuses on once skills and knowledge, a superior-subordinate communication is present.
Relational power- this is power in personal relations it has a superior-subordinate communication.
Moral Responsibility-depends on individual view on responsibility, less superior subordinate communication.
Level of influence
Comply with; control where one accepts a request of another without even agreeing.
In identification influence, one identifies with a group which influences him or her.
Internalization; one integrates an idea and no supervision.
The condition necessary for people to engage in compliant behavior is the reward type of power.
The organization set rules and standards determine how much power a manager in the organization.
By practicing referent type of power where the subordinate will work looking for you, and thus one need not supervise.
Mc Croskey, J. C., Richmond, V.P (1996). Fundamentals of human communication: An interpersonal perspective. Prospect Height, IL: Waveland Press.
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