Adverse Childhood Experiences. Essay Sample

Published: 2023-03-08
Adverse Childhood Experiences. Essay Sample
Type of paper:  Article review
Categories:  Nursing Childhood Special education
Pages: 7
Wordcount: 1796 words
15 min read

The title of the article indicates the paper evaluates the effectiveness of the curriculum used in teaching Adverse Childhood Experiences in the Bachelor of Science, Nursing. Therefore, the title is clear and accurate. The abstract presents an overview of the study. It explains the background of the research in the need for quality care by healthcare professionals by knowing the causes of ACEs and preventive strategies. Also, the abstract provides an overview of the methods, results, and conclusion of the study. While the elements are essential in giving healthcare professionals a preview of the study, it does not provide recommendations. Thus, the healthcare professional may not understand how knowledge of the research content by improving or changing the way he/she handles ACEs.

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Problem & Purpose

The problem and purpose of the paper are identified in the introduction of the research. The authors explain that there is a lack of explicit ACEs curricular concept map, which should guide the teaching in Bachelor of Science in Nursing. Therefore, the purpose of the paper is to describe how ACEs curricular concept maps can guide instruction in the BSN program (Gill, Zhan, RoRosenberg & Breckenridge, 2019). The problem & purpose of the study is apparent hence helping the nursing student identify how the findings will fill the gaps in knowledge and skills in the profession.

Literature Review

The review of literature is seemingly combined with the background information. The first section explains the relationship between concept mapping and healthcare education. The authors provide a background of concept mapping. The concepts guide the linking of prior knowledge hence creating a conducive environment for the creation of new knowledge. The second section of background information explains concept mapping use in education. It shows how previous studies connect concept mapping to critical thinking, which can help nursing students develop care plans.

Additionally, concept mapping makes it easier for nursing students to apply theoretical knowledge in practice. The third section of what appears to be a literature review explains the importance of engaging the staff in the integration of curriculum in ACEs. Generally, the background study, which also contains the literature review, is logically organized. However, it only provides findings that support the concept mapping as a valid teaching strategy. Providing a counter-argument would have increased the confidence of the nurse on the validity of the basis of the study. Also, the author uses studies published between 1996 and 2018 (Gill et al., 2019). The more a study uses new sources, the more robust it becomes. Thus, this part negatively influences the robustness of the research.

Conceptual Framework

The study is based on constructivist approach. Therefore, the authors use the prior knowledge on the use of concept mapping in healthcare professional education, nursing education, and staff engagement to create new insight on how content mapping to create a curriculum on teaching ACEs in BSN (Gill et al., 2019). The conceptual framework has not been adequately identified because it is implied in the background section. Also, it has not been adequately described. The authors use it as part of the introductory statement in explaining background information on content mapping in health profession education.


The study clearly outlines that the study takes the qualitative approach using content analysis as the method of data collection. The authors explain that they used the inductive approach of content analysis, which helped in investigating how content mapping can be used to develop a curriculum in teaching ACEs using a systemic approach. The sources were selected using the purposive sampling method. Additionally, 22 faculty members of the ACEs course were involved in helping in identifying the key concepts and discussions that can be used to incorporate ACEs in didactic courses (Gill et al., 2019). The research provides an adequate explanation for the method and sampling techniques used. However, there is no explanation of how the researchers confirmed the reliability and validity of the study.


The research uses manifest coding to identify the key concepts and narratives in the faculty of ACEs. The results have been presented using a table that categorizes the themes into major and minor sections. Also, the ACEs curricular is shown into a concept map. The data presented in the table and the concept map is descriptive, and the format is appropriate because of the qualitative approach used in the study. Also, the table and concept map are relevant because they help the nursing student or professional visualize how the knowledge from the ACEs curriculum will help in improving health outcomes in patients.


The discussion links the findings to the background of the study. The background study explained the use of concept mapping in health and nursing education (Gill et al., 2019). The discussion indicates that the knowledge can help faculty members develop Adverse Childhood Experiences Curriculum Concept Map. Then, they can use ACECCM to teach students the relationship between chronic disease and toxic stress. However, the study uses a small sample size. The size challenges the generalizability and transferability of the findings.

Clinical Relevance

The study provides sufficient evidence on the effectiveness of ACECCM in teaching nursing. The use of peer-reviewed sources and information from 22 faculty members provides both theoretical and practical information showing how the Bachelor of Science in Nursing can use concept mapping to develop a curriculum for teaching ACEs (Gill et al., 2019). The primary strength of this study is that it is organized in a way that is easy to follow. Also, it uses an appropriate number of sources that help in explaining the basis and justification for the study. However, it uses a small sample size hence preventing faculty members from other institutions from using the findings as to the primary source of reference when using when developing a curriculum for teaching ACEs. Therefore, the evidence can be applied in EBP alongside other sources.

The Benefits of an Animal-Assisted Intervention Service to Patients and Staff At A Children's Hospital

Title & Abstract

The title indicates the topic of the study hence making it easy for the nursing student to relate it to the field. The abstract provides a method of research. The researcher conducted an online survey to establish how Animal Assisted Intervention influences the U.K. children teaching hospital. Also, the study provides the findings on the positive response to AAI; hence, the program should be supported throughout the U.K. However, the abstract is not clear since it does not provide the problem being investigated.

Problem & Purpose

There is no indication of the problem and purpose of the study. Instead, the introduction provides the history of AAI in the U.K., how it has been used in countries like the U.S. and the activities offered by the service (Uglow, 2019). Lack of the description of the problem and purpose of the study confuses the student who plans to use knowledge from this research to increase awareness on AAI as a concept and how it can be used in nursing practices like occupational therapy, physiotherapy, and play therapy.

Literature Review

The study does not have a literature review. Instead, the author explains how the AAI works to show the reader how the research was conducted. The information is given in reference to a study by the Royal College of Nursing in 2018 (Uglow, 2019). AAI involves dogs who have been tested to ensure they love interactions with children. Three volunteers handle the dogs. They visit children wards where they provide casual Animal Assisted Activity (Uglow, 2019). Occasionally, the service may involve specific interventions in the Intensive Care Unit, surgical, high dependency, and medical wards. Lack of literature review negatively influences the robustness of the study because there is no way the reader can confirm the validity and reliability of the information provided by the author.

Conceptual Framework

AAI is based on the challenges children experience when undergoing medical procedures that do not require anaesthesia and prior sedation. It helps reduce the cost of medication needed when a child undergoes processes like telemetry and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Uglow, 2019). The author presents the conceptual framework of the study by showing samples of responses from parents whose children benefited from the AAI service. The example of response and explanation of the conceptual framework helps in understanding how the service benefits the medical field and improves health outcomes in patients.


The study follows the quantitative approach using two online surveys as the data collection method. The first online survey was conducted on parents, guardians, or caregivers of children attending any therapy at the UK primary children hospital. The staff at the hospital did the second survey. The author explains that filling the online survey was voluntary. However, the children's hospital matrons gave permission. Generally, 82 staff members and 118 parents/guardians/caregivers participated in the online survey (Uglow, 2019). The researcher explains the methods and sampling techniques. However, there is no description of the theory guiding the research instrument. Also, there is no description of the reliability and validity of the online survey method.


The research uses tables to list the questions asked to the respondents. The responses are presented in percentages to show the impact of AAI on children according to parents/guardians/caregivers and staff at the UK children's hospital. The method of presenting the results is simple; hence, it can be easily connected to the purpose of the study. Also, it is appropriate because the goal of the research is to show the perception of the significance of AAI among parents/caregivers/guardians and staff.


The author interprets that the findings show overwhelming support for the use of AAI in the UK children's hospital. However, this may not be the case since the author explains that there were responses that did not endorse the use of AAI in the hospital. For example, one response from a staff member showed that parents and children gave negative feedback when they used AAI. Meaning, the statement that the support for AAI is overwhelming is not accurate hence misleading.

Also, the author provides the literature review when discussing the findings. The research refers to studies by Levinston (1965), Moody et al. (2002), Braun et al. (2009), Barker et al. (2015), and McDowell et al. (2005). The information should be in the section of the literature review. However, the author does not include a literature review section hence confusing the reader.

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