Singaporean vegetable farming provides food and creates jobs for its citizens. Furthermore, it generates revenue for the government for economic development. Actually, small-holder farmers dominate vegetable farming. In most cases, these farmers manage their own tracts of land. Notably, Singaporean vegetable consumers are increasingly becoming concerned about the quality, health, and the nutritional value of the vegetables they consume. It is worth pinpointing that concerns have been due to recurrent food crises, food contamination by pesticides and other agrochemicals, and the unregulated application of food additives to process foods (Reardon & Timmer, 2014). Also, there have been increases in food-related diseases and complications like coronary heart disease, obesity, and so on. The concerns have prompted Singaporean government to adopt innovative strategies in a bid to avert the problems in the vegetable sector.
Three major changes include opening new lands for more production of vegetable to address food crises issue. For instance, the Singaporean government plans to open 3.5% more hectares of land, which translates to 45,700 hectares by 2020 (Koscica, 2014). Moreover, the government has advocated and encouraged for improvement in post-harvesting handling. This involves proper storage and packaging to sustain vegetable quality. Lastly, the Singaporean government has been strengthening organic vegetable markets to discourage the use of agrochemicals that poison vegetables. Key analysis for this report will assess the innovations aimed at averting the concerns of Singaporean consumers. In addition, it will analyze open innovation theories that relate to the changes initiated in Singaporean vegetable farming. Finally, it will draw conclusions and recommendations that will improve the industry.
25/5/2018 - 27/5/2018 Research of appropriate articles
30/5/2018 - 3/6/2018 Analysis of articles identified
4/6/2018 - 6/6/2018 Report writing
7/6/2018 - 10/6/2018 Conclusion and recommendation
The critical milestones for this timeline involve analysis of articles identified to be appropriate for research and the actual report writing. These two milestones encompass the major part of the report and can be used to gauge the percentage of work left. It is imperative to note that a proper analysis of appropriate will enable efficient report writing.
Personality Capability Assessment
The report involves an in-depth analysis of peer-reviewed journal articles. This involves a critical assessment of the content and relating it to the open innovation theories. Personally, I do not possess the required strength in terms of critical analysis of the appropriate materials as well as drawing a relevant conclusion. The two weaknesses will be detrimental factors to the overall quality of the report. Thus, to ensure that the report meets the desired quality, I will widely do research on the fundamentals of a good critical analysis of articles. This will involve reading a lot of books and blogs that will act as a framework for carrying out a good analysis. In addition, I will consult colleagues who are experts in carrying out critical analysis. By so doing, I believe my analysis skills, as well as my ability to draw relevant conclusions, will improve. Consequently, my report will meet the required quality and analysis.
Article Identification and Review
The two articles selected are scholarly sources by He (2015) and He and Lee (2012). These articles identify technological innovation that can be used to alleviate consumer concerns on vegetable farming such as food insecurity, safety, and quality.
The Theories Applicable in Innovation Management in Singaporean Vegetable Farming
There are many theories in open innovation that explain the need for technological innovation in various sectors of a country's economy (West & Bogers, 2014). However, for these two particular articles, two theories accurately explain the need for technological innovation in Singaporean vegetable sector. The theories that these articles try to explain are market pull innovations and government policies and firms innovation (Costantini, Crespi, Martini, & Pennacchio, 2015; Dolfsma & Seo, 2013).
Literature Review Annotation
The author, He (2015), is a researcher in agriculture. This article involved identification of the best innovation that can utilize the limited farming space in Singapore in order to increase vegetable farming to cater for the increasing demand as well as the need for quality production. He (2015) noted that Singapore needs to use a unique farming methodology that is contingent to climatic changes. One innovation that the author suggests is the use of an aeroponic system that could produce vegetables irrespective of the time of the year. This method will enable increased productivity and enhanced quality of vegetables produced, thus enabling food safety and security. This technology is therefore prudent in the identification of an innovative technology that the Singaporean government can use to address its citizens' concerns.
The authors, He and Lee (2012), are agriculturalists who are specialized in research. They recognize that Singaporeans are currently experiencing food insecurity, a situation that calls for innovative strategies on how to make vegetable production sustainable. The researchers note that Singaporeans need innovative systems that will ensure a constant supply of fresh vegetables throughout the year. Since the horizontal expansion of the arid land is impossible, vertical extensions of the production area are encouraged. One way to achieve this is through the aeroponic system. As a matter of fact, this system will enable farmers to introduce the required amount of nutrients and carbon dioxide to the growing vegetables. He and Lee (2012) further suggest that to boost vegetable production, Singaporeans should practice crop rotation. This article is relevant since it suggests an innovation that could avert concerns in the vegetation farming sector of Singapore.
Summary That the Theories are Applicable for Assignment 3
The Singaporean vegetable farming extensively uses inorganic chemicals which have raised concerns from farmers. Also, most regions in Singapore exhibit erratic weather which leads to low production of vegetables. This has led to the growing demand from Singaporean citizens for the need for improved quality and a continuous supply of vegetables. Furthermore, the Singaporean government has come up with strategies and policies to curb the challenges that face the vegetable farming sector. Therefore, two theories are evident from the two articles described above that describe open innovation.
The first theory is market pull innovations which involve the requirement for a new solution or product to a given problem in a marketplace. Usually, the people that identify these needs are market researchers or customers. In most cases, a customer asks producers to improve a particular product to meet the expected standard and quality. It is prudent to note that the articles pinpoint Singaporean consumers as the main reason for the adoption of innovative strategies to enhance food security and quality. Thus, market pull innovation will enable Singapore to be an innovation hub. The second theory entails formulation of government policies as well as firm innovation. From the articles, there was the need for the Singaporean government to ensure that its citizens have enough food. Moreover, there is the need to offer quality and safe vegetables for citizens. For this reason, the government of Singapore has heavily invested in innovative strategies that will boost vegetable production and ensure safe food. Therefore, favorable policies by the Singaporean government will make the country a major destination for other nations.
Summary of a Report Plan
Assignment III entails preparation of a report that discusses the best practices for open innovation. The report will draw theories as well as real-world examples of vegetable farming in Singapore. Particularly, it will focus on aeroponic technology that will ensure enough production of vegetables. Also, this technological innovation will ensure safety and quality of vegetables. The proposed structure and summary of the report are as outlined below.
This part will entail giving a general overview of the Singaporean vegetable farming sector. It will also involve identification of concerns from customers and the most effective ways to cater to them. Further, this part will identify other methods that can be used to identify innovative practices such as market research. Finally, it will introduce aeroponic technology as the preferred innovation to solve issues related to food security, safety, and health.
2. Main Body
(a). Identification of the problems facing Singaporean vegetable farming.
(b). An overview of existing technological innovation that aims at solving the problems identified. This will entail recognition of their advantages and disadvantages.
(c). An in-depth discussion of aeroponic technology as the best technological innovation in vegetable farming in Singapore that will guarantee food safety and security. This subsection also involves incorporation of open innovation theories such as market pull innovation and government policies.
This section encompasses a recap of the details discussed in the main body after which relevant recommendations are made.
The erratic weather in Singapore has adversely affected vegetable production, thus food insecurity. Moreover, the use of agro-based chemicals in producing vegetables has raised concerns as far as health is concerned. For this reason, there is a need for innovation to avert the problems experienced in the Singaporean agricultural sector. Through open innovation, various technologies can be adopted that ensure abundant production of vegetables throughout the year. Additionally, Singaporean government can encourage organic farming to alleviate concerns of food poisoning.
Costantini, V., Crespi, F., Martini, C., & Pennacchio, L. (2015). Demand-pull and technology-push public support for eco-innovation: The case of the biofuels sector. Research Policy, 44(3), 577-595.
Dolfsma, W., & Seo, D. (2013). Government policy and technological innovation-a suggested typology. Technovation, 33(6-7), 173-179.
He, J. (2015). Integrated vertical aeroponic farming systems for vegetable production in space limited environments. ICESC2015: Hydroponics and Aquaponics at the Gold Coast 1176, 25-36.
He, J., & Lee, S. K. (2012). Impact of climate change on food security and proposed solutions for the modern city. In International Symposium on Soilless Cultivation, 1004, pp. 41-52.
Koscica, M. (2014). Agropolis: The role of urban agriculture in addressing food insecurity in developing cities. Journal of International Affairs, 177-186.
Reardon, T., & Timmer, C. P. (2014). Five inter-linked transformations in the Asian agrifood economy: Food security implications. Global Food Security, 3(2), 108-117.
West, J., & Bogers, M. (2014). Leveraging external sources of innovation: a review of research on open innovation. Journal of Product Innovation Management, 31(4), 814-831.
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