|Type of paper:||Research paper|
|Categories:||Medicine Electronics Surgery|
3D printing includes various techniques of manufacturing, used in the construction of structures all the way from the ground upwards. The technology has also gotten adapted in significant surgical applications (Malik et al., 2015). The technique has gotten applied in the treatment of patients that require some medical operations such as external fixators, implants and also cutting guides in surgery among others. The profound application of the technology in surgery operations explains the reason why it is experiencing exponential growth. Learning about the working and application of the 3D technology is essential for learners, as they learn about how the technology has gotten used in the past, and the potential that exists. The current paper discusses 3D printing technology, and how the technology gets applied in the creation of personalized models, that help in the more accurate performance of surgery.
The technique of 3D has gotten adapted at a remarkable rate by the surgeons, and they have applied it in various instances. Nearly each part that consists the human anatomy and that which can get operated on has a 3D model that got printed for it (Malik et al., 2015). The recent increase in the use of 3D technology is an illustration of the promise that the technology has made, and its use in surgery.
In the year 1979, the first suggestion of the construction and application of the 3D printing in the field of medicine got made (Cheung, Looi, Lendvay, Drake & Farhat, 2014). During that time, there did not exist the 3D printing machines. During that time, the surgeons made use of the CNC that used computers, which would control the fabrication tools. The first 3D printing machine got introduced at the time of the late 1980s. After that time, the application of the technique began to be considered seriously.
According to studies, in average an American is observed to undergo around 9.2 procedures of surgery in their whole life (Cheung et al., 2014). 4.4 get performed on an individual as an impatient, as an outpatient, 2.6 procedures get carried out. Additionally. Another 3.2 procedures gets performed, but however not in the setting of a hospital (Cheung et al., 2014). For men, the most surgical procedures performed include coronary angioplasty, the repair of the groin, and also the removal of wound tissues that are unhealthy. The most common for the women include the cesarean section, the removal of the gallbladder, and the surgery of the cataract. As individuals get older, their chances of more surgeries increase.
The 3D medical models assist in the planning of surgeries by the surgeons (Rengier et al., 2010). The surgeons come up with a plan that shows them what they are to do during the actual surgery. A specific model of a given patient enables the surgeon to feel and see the encounter that they will have to pass through during the surgery procedure. Through this way, the surgeon gets the ability to accurately plan on what they must do throughout the procedure, for the process to be successful.
Application of the 3D printing model in surgery comes in in this occasion. The printing helps in the reduction of surprise instances that have the possibility of occurring at the time of the surgical procedure (Rengier et al., 2010). The 3D printing brings the benefits of the ability of the involved surgeon to work on specific models of the anatomy of patients. the models are important rather than using other modes such as the application of x-ray in the viewing, ultra sound images application, CT images and MRI images. The reason for this is that the above images may not produce a clearer image as the surgeon would prefer in order to view the specific organ well. A specific model of a patient provided the surgeon with the accurate information on what the surgeon w8ill be operating on. Thus, the patient will get a more satisfactory result when the 3D image model gets applied.
In the case that things do not go well as planned, the cost and time of the given operation usually increase. Therefore, the time of the patient's recovery has to get extended. When the knowledge of a patient's anatomy emerges from the perspective of the 2D, the possible situations becomes hard to predict. Such 2D perspective can come from instruments such as the CT scan, the MRI, or at some times from the X-ray.
Usually, the surgeons have to take their time and pre-plan the cuts that are required on a given patient. The study of the images of the specific organs to get operated on by the surgeons helps in the pre-plan process. The method leads to an increase in the time required for the particular surgery (Eltorai, Nguyen & Daniels, 2015). The reason for this is that the surgeon does not have the ability to conduct the surgery before the time on a model that is physical. The 3D model can get developed in such a way that they show the conditions that will get faced by a surgeon. The models are touchable, they can also get passed around, and the surgical team can have a discussion about them. By so doing, the surgical team share knowledge, and thus makes the surgery an easier process.
3D printing processes that gets based on polyjet produces parts that are smooth and accurate. The parts also consist resolutions that get termed as microscopic, and they have an accuracy level of up to about 0.1mm (Eltorai et al., 2015). Therefore, they have the capability of practically fabricating any given anatomy. At the same time, they get to stimulate both the hard and soft textures, together with the color as it appears, and tus they can get applied in various specialties of surgery.
The models of 3D get developed from scans of patients. therefore, the surgeons are thus allowed to perfect their methods before they can enter the operating theater for surgery. The benefits of the 3D model which include physical, tangible and three-dimensional increases the surgery preparedness, and thus it can get to reduce the time that gets used in the specific surgery.
3D printing has the ability to arouse everything in the body (Eltorai et al., 2015). This ranges from muscles, and even the soft tissues. The bone and the cartilage are other body organs that can get stimulated by the three dimensional printing.
The software of the three-dimensional surgical planning, together with the specific surgical guides of the patients assist in the surgery of the knee. Therefore, this enables the surgeons to plan an individual's knee surgery depending on the unique structure and anatomy of the patient's knee. The system gets applied in the making of plans before the actual operation, together with fabricating the specific guides of the involved patients. Later, they are then printed in 3D, to get used during the procedure of operation.
A surgical guide for patients is a device that gets used for only one time. The guides get manufactured from resin, which gets characterized as a very biocompatible material. Its application is offering guidance to a surgical instrument to allow for exact handling in an accurate angle where the exact drilling or cutting is to take place. Each guide gets prepared before the surgery, and the surgeon sets the guidelines to be followed.
A three-dimensional model outlines the pathology that can show a possible complication or a solution that can get observed. Unlike the three dimensions, the 2D do not have the capability of assessing and observing such processes (Rengier et al., 2010). A three dimension model also determines the practicability of a given device or procedure. By using the model, the team in the surgery can decides on using maybe a different approach or even applying different methods to work with the anatomy of the patient.
The three dimensional method of printing gets considered to be faster compared to the methods that got used traditionally (Malik et al., 2015). Such traditional methods include implants, which require a long time to deliver results. Unlike them, a three dimensional mode can get made in just few hours. Other than the quick production offered by the three dimensions, accuracy is another important aspect.
Currently, the technique of three dimensional printing gets applied in medical fabrication and research. The advantages that comes along with the three dimensional printing include the precise control of the size of droplets. Production of drug forms of high complex, together with high amount of reproducibility are other advantages that comes with the mode (Cheung et al., 2014). The use of three dimensional printing in the production of prescribed drugs will help in the increase of effectiveness. Additionally, this will reduce the risk brought about by hostile reactions. With the application of three dimensional printing, the manufacture of modified medications will become easier.
Cheung, C. L., Looi, T., Lendvay, T. S., Drake, J. M., & Farhat, W. A. (2014). Use of 3-dimensional printing technology and silicone modeling in surgical simulation: development and face validation in pediatric laparoscopic pyeloplasty. Journal of surgical education, 71(5), 762-767.
Eltorai, A. E., Nguyen, E., & Daniels, A. H. (2015). Three-dimensional printing in orthopedic surgery. Orthopedics, 38(11), 684-687.
Malik, H. H., Darwood, A. R., Shaunak, S., Kulatilake, P., Abdulrahman, A., Mulki, O., & Baskaradas, A. (2015). Three-dimensional printing in surgery: a review of current surgical applications. Journal of Surgical Research, 199(2), 512-522.
Rengier, F., Mehndiratta, A., Von Tengg-Kobligk, H., Zechmann, C. M., Unterhinninghofen, R., Kauczor, H. U., & Giesel, F. L. (2010). 3D printing based on imaging data: review of medical applications. International journal of computer assisted radiology and surgery, 5(4), 335-341.
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