South African and Zimbabwean women's narratives of their abortion decision
The article evaluates narratives from both Zimbabwean and South African regarding their decision about abortion in 2013-2015. Participants from South Africa were women from one clinic in and urban environment and two facilities from rural areas. In Zimbabwe, researchers collected data from an urban area, working class suburb, and low-income suburb. In both countries, women justified abortion for three reasons. First, the belief that they can only give birth to a child when married. Second, they could not live up to standards of good mothering. Third, they did not have stable relationships. Fourth, the shame and stigma of pregnancy.
In the article, one aspect I learned that I did not already know is that post-colonial feminist approaches make women have a logical discourse towards the issue of abortion. According to researchers, their approach acknowledges various positions that women occupy in the global and neo-colonial power associations. More so, a factor that I found most interesting is the idea that a Zimbabwean woman believed that God would forgive her if she terminates her pregnancy. Additionally, another interesting fact is the Zimbabwean woman who felt that she has to perform an abortion. The reason was that she has a young child and their Shona culture, which states that children should not feed on the same breast at the same time because it might affect their development. The strong point of the article is the idea that post-colonial feminist approach contributes to an understanding of gendered power relations that are integral in issues such as abortion. On the contrary, the weak point of the article is that framing abortion using reproductive rights is problematic. The reason is that it is a woman's choice to control her reproductive rights and decisions.
Experiences of Simplified Medical Abortion in Rajasthan, India
Here, researchers presented women's perception and experiences for three abortion processes such as deciding to take misoprostol at home, using misoprostol pill at home, and self-assessment after performing abortion. In the first, perceptions from an urban woman was that she decided to take misoprostol at home because of the privacy. The rural woman did not go to the clinic because she had household chores. Second, a rural woman took the pills and had no nausea, and no abdominal pain, then went to the farm, while the urban woman had the opposite and laid in bed. Third, both women from urban and rural areas assessed themselves by looking at symptoms of pregnancy.
In the article, one aspect I learned that I did not already know is that most women prefer home abortions compared to those carried out in the clinic. More so, a factor that I found most interesting is that women prefer to perform abortions at home despite risks involved in it. Moreover, majority of women seeking abortion services are from the rural communities. The strong point of the article is that staff in abortion clinics should provide clear instructions to women who intend to terminate their pregnancies. On the contrary, the weak point of the article is that abortion clinics should give women more control over their lives and be allowed to perform abortions at home. I consider it weak because it might put women in danger.
Contraception Are Substitutes. Demography
Here, authors studied the legalization of abortion provision and extension of services in Nepal. Researchers affirm that in early 1996, urban areas were more likely to have legal abortions compared to rural environments. In the previous estimates of substitution between abortion and contraception, a study found that rural women were more likely to have abortions during times of policy implementation because of the reduction in contraceptives. Also, researchers found that safe abortions were less prevalent in rural areas compared to urban areas. Additionally, they found that private providers of abortion were prevalent in urban areas compared to rural environments.
In the article, one aspect I learned that I did not already know is that legalization of abortion reduced the effective cost. As authors explain, the government policy in Nepal stipulates that poor women should undergo abortion free of charge due to the relative mean annual income. More so, one factor that I found most interesting is that living near an abortion clinic increased chances of not being able to carry a pregnancy to the last month by 8.1%. As well, contraceptive dominance is high in areas where there are higher concentrations of legal abortions. I found these points interesting because women thought of abortion because they lived near an abortion clinic, and that abortion is still legal in areas where contraceptives are being distributed. The strong point of the article is that the only way to prevent unsafe abortions in rural and urban areas is to expand the distribution of contraceptives. On the contrary, the weak point of the article is that the expansion of legal abortions is associated with the likelihood that women abort. The reason is authors contradict themselves when they assert that an impact on contraceptive use may be detected before abortion effect is realized.
A cross-sectional study of Chinese populations. Reproductive Health
Researchers explore the relationship between spontaneous abortion (SA) and socio-economic status (SES) in China. Through stratification analysis, findings from their study revealed that the risk of SA was 1.68 times greater in urban than rural areas. Also, they found that the relationship between income and SA in urban environments was stronger compared to rural areas. Additionally, they found that the link between education and SA was found in urban, but not rural areas. Moreover, they found that no difference existed on how occupation affected SA in women in rural and urban areas.
In the article, one aspect I learned that I did not already know is that women in rural areas tend to have more spontaneous abortions compared to those in urban areas. Authors articulate that abortion was 9.04% in rural surroundings and 3.75% in urban areas. More so, one factor that I found most interesting is that the risk of spontaneous abortion reduced in factory and professional workers compared to agricultural workers. The reason is that factory and professional workers appear to work and have pressure more that could lead to spontaneous abortion. The strong point of the article is that women who have a lower socio-economic status, low income, and lower educational attainment are likely to carry out more abortions. As researcher point out, these individuals have minimal access to health services and tend to depict risky behaviors, which increase their probability of having spontaneous abortions. On the contrary, the weak point of the article is that the study design and population studied in the research resulted in a consistency in results.
Abortion cases have been on the rise worldwide. Apparently, most of abortions that occur throughout the world are intended. Insights from the results conducted clearly show that both rural and urban women have their reasons for terminating their pregnancies. Also, women in rural communities tend to have more spontaneous abortions than those in urban areas. More to the point, both women from rural and urban areas prefer to perform abortions in the comfort of their homes. Most of them result in either induced or spontaneous abortions. In general, women from rural and urban areas have to be educated on risks of abortion.
Chiweshe, M., Mavuso, J., and Macleod, C. (2017). Reproductive justice in context:
South African and Zimbabwean women's narratives of their abortion decision. Feminism & Psychology, 0(0), pp. 1-22.
Iyenga et al. (2016). Who Wants to Go Repeatedly to the Hospital? Perceptions and
Experiences of Simplified Medical Abortion in Rajasthan, India. Global Qualitative Nursing Research, vol. 3, pp. 1-13.
Miller, G., and Valente, C. (2016). Population Policy: Abortion and Modern
Contraception Are Substitutes. Demography, vol. 53, pp. 979-1009.
Zheng, D., Li, C., Wu, T., and Tang, K. (2017). Factors associated with spontaneous
abortion: a cross-sectional study of Chinese populations. Reproductive Health, vol. 14, no. 33.
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