One is Realist Views and the other is anti-realist views. Moral realism holds for objective values examines factualism in claims, their truth or falsity is one pegged on our beliefs and feelings. On the other hand anti-realism holds that there are no objective values to truth and falsity of a claim.
Write a sentence that captures the Euthyphro Dilemma.
The Euthyphro dilemma describes a situation where Platos dialogue with Euthyphro, it questions if the pious is loved by the gods because it is pious or is it pious because it is loved by the gods.
The Divine Command Theory is an ethically Relativist theory. True or False?
If you are an Ethical Realist, you believe that right and wrong are objective and independent of anyones say-so. True or False?
What is the difference between a teleological ethical theory and a deontological ethical theory?
Deontological ethical theory is one that looks into the moral ethics of a certain action whether they are right or wrong and it does not focus on the results of the action. On the other hand teleology focuses on the results, it looks into the purpose of all actions and intentions and deals with the results of the action.
For the Egoist, it is wrong to do anything for anyone else, under any circumstances. True or False?
If Glaucon is right (that we only behave morally well because we are afraid of punishment), then is Altruism even possible? Why or why not?
Altruism is possible because human beings have an innate ability to know what is morally right, actions of people is not always motivated by the fear of punishment but for the goodwill of people we care about. This can be seen by people breaking the law in a bid to do a selfless act.
11. Is Utilitarianism a teleological or deontological theory?
Utilitarianism is purely teleological as it looks into the final results of an individuals action as opposed to deontological theory that looks into the morality of an individuals action.
12. Describe the Utilitarian Principle of Utility.
Utilitarian theory and the Principle of Utility describes that actions are only right if they elicit happiness in others and they are wrong if they elicit unhappiness in other people.
13. Aristotle believes that virtue is something that is learned, not something one is either born with or without. True or false?
14. Difference between the Categorical Imperative and the Hypothetical Imperative
Categorical imperatives describe to individuals what to do irrespective of the individuals desires while hypothetical imperative is goal oriented and it tells people what to do in order to achieve a given set goal.
15. This question is worth 9 points. Here is an ethical thought experiment, originally invented by philosopher Philippa Foot.
In this case scenario a Kantian would rather save the five people by diverting the train to the single individual as saving much more people is much more beneficial.
An Egoist would rather save the single individual as his/her motive is based on what he/she think is write and not what morality dictates. The egoist can also chose to do nothing about it.
In this case scenario, saving five lives is better than saving the life of one individual. The Utilitarian would propose that he saved five lives which is much more important.
Now suppose that there is no switch, but that you are instead standing on a bridge over the railway track next to a very large man, and you are sure that if you pushed him onto the track his bulk (but not yours) would be sufficient to stop the train before it hit the group of people. There is no way to alert the people on the track as they are too far away, and there is no time to call for help you must act immediately. What do you think now? Should one kill the large man?
In this case scenario a Kantian would leave the large man and let the train hit the five people on the train tracks.
In this case scenario, the action is rather unpredictable as the interest of the egoist cannot be known. He/she can either leave the large man be or stop the train by pushing the large man. The egoist can decide to do nothing.
In this case scenario, a Kantian would rather push the large man on the train tracks in a bid to save the lives of the five people.
16. Describe what is different about the cases above. Would you act differently in Version A and Version B?
Version A results in the death of five individual if action is not taken and in Version B the number of casualties is the same. The solution to both of these cases is to surface one on behalf of the others or kill the five people. I would react in the same way in both case scenarios.
17. If you are a Virtue ethicist, you should practice virtuous acts because it will bring you money and power. True or False?
18. How does Aristotle suggest one work out what the right thing to do is in any given situation?
In any case Aristotle suggest that one bases his actions on virtues learn overtime in life.
19. For Kant, ALL humans have the capability of reason, and thus can work out for themselves what is the right thing to do. True or false?
20. May one treat others as means to ends, according to Kant?
No. One should watch over their action in order not to offend other people.
21. May one treat others as means to ends for the Utilitarian?
Yes. As long as the results of their action is justifiable.
22. Eudaimonia, for Aristotle, is a life full of only pleasure and doing as one pleases. True or false?
No. Eudaimonia should be a life lived by virtue and not constituted by wealth, honor or power but by rational activity.
23. For Aristotle, we must aim our behavior at the mean or middle. What does that involve?
Aristotle stands for the middle, not extremism in the case that one should know what to take and what not to take on but after analyzing his ability to take up a certain challenge.
24. Why would working on having a virtuous character make you happier than winning the lottery, according to Aristotle?
Aristotle describes that the achievement of virtue is much more important in that with virtue one is able to know how to strike the balance of pleasure and leisure and those of modesty.
25. Why does Kant think that to be immoral is to be irrational?
Kant describes morality from the standpoint that they are dictated ways of living and if one is immoral then they are not being reasonable. Virtues and morality stand to rule.
26. Kant believes that morality is too important to trust to reason we should base our behavior on our emotions. True or False?
27. If you are a Moral Relativist, can you condemn the practices of other cultures?
You cannot condemn the traditions of other people as to them their traditions are morally acceptable as dictated by their god or traditions.
28. Should we base our morality on reason or on emotion? Why?
Reason: This is because we tend to act in unvirtuous ways when we left to handle a situation based on emotion.
29. Do right and wrong exist independently of human ideas, practices, cultures and beliefs? Why/Why not?
No: Right and wrong are interlaced with every action and culture of human life as we are bound by virtues.
30. Does society have a moral responsibility to do anything about people like Courtney? Why or why not?
Yes. This is because in her situation, she left home because of an abusive situation. Society ought to offer her a helping hand by giving her a job and helping her to settle down because it was not her fault to have an abusive home.
31. Give a Kantian analysis of what Bert should do here.
In this case scenario Bert should make a point of calling Kantian and giving her money back. This is because you are not aware of what the other person is going through so it is morally right to contact them first.
32. Give a Utilitarian analysis of what Bert should do
Bert should take the money and help the 10 homeless individual to get a home. This is because utilitarianism describes that the end justifies the means because in the long run 10 people would have been absolved of homelessness.
33. Describe Kants Kingdom of Ends
Kingdom of Ends is that of rational beings who are capable of moral deliberation but must be given laws that are absolute. It is from this point of view that they judge themselves.
34. Using Reason as opposed to blind obedience
Kant describes that blind obedience to some external authority clouds an individuals ability to reason. When one reasons and makes a decision, they find satisfaction from their decision and this rids off any regrets in the future.
35. Think of a moral dilemma you have faced. Describe how you might now resolve it using one of the moral theories you have studied.
While walking down the street, you meet a baby stroller with a baby skidding down the footpath while there is an older lady about to be hit by a car while crossing a busy street.
In the above case scenario, I would apply Utilitarianism Theory and save the child leaving the older lady at the fate of the driver. This is because saving a young child is securing the future.
36. Do you believe we humans have made moral progress over time?
Yes in certain aspect such as the first and the second amendment rights. These rights have helped forge a moral standard in society hence enabling peaceful coexistence.
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