The Earth's surface is covered with 70% water (Gleick and Meena 11155). Water on the surface appears blue when viewed from space hence the name 'Blue planet'. Although water is in surplus, fresh water accounts for only 2.53% of all water on the planet, and the only freshwater supports earthly life, including human life. Freshwater is, therefore, a rare and precious good that, if it is contaminated, may no longer be able to fulfill its various ecological roles. Humanity is appropriating a significant share of freshwater, removing it from the terrestrial ecosystems we depend on so much, making it inaccessible, even for our use, and contaminating it. In this context, it is crucial to know how water is distributed on Earth and in what proportions. Saltwater constitutes at least 97% of the water resources.
Water is a renewable resource permanently threatened by pollution
Water pollution is an alteration that makes its use dangerous and disrupts the aquatic ecosystem. Despite the importance that water has to animals, plants and the environment in general, we continue to pollute and degrade its quality. It may concern water surfaces that include rivers, bodies of water and groundwater. Different sources of water pollution are chemical pollution in wild dumps, domestic pollution, and agricultural pollution. Human activities like manufacturing consumer goods, agriculture, landfilling and even recreational sports such as boating have negative impacts on water surfaces.
Chemical pollution can be accidental or diffuse. Industries reject various types of pollution that lead to a deterioration of the environment. Thousands of manufactured goods make use of different hazardous chemicals. Often these chemicals end up in water and are then released to the environment before the wastewater get treated. This habit is familiar with the majority of manufacturing factories and paper mills.
The wild dumps that include draining oil, and battery cell chemicals and any other harmful substance that one throws in nature without really paying attention, represent a source of pollution which sometimes does much damage. Plastic waste end up in water bodies where it poses a danger to aquatic life.
Virtually all mining activity has the potential to pollute the waters. The mines and its auxiliary facilities occupy large areas exposed to the rains, propitiating the contact of the waters with the mineral, with the sterile and with exposed soil, causing a series of processes of the medium physical, such as erosion, or chemical processes as the oxidation of sulfides, causing of acid drainage. Also, a good part of mineral beneficiation processes are wet, so waste contains a potentially aqueous fraction. Effluents from the flotation of minerals or gold mineralization are part of it. Besides that, some methods of exploitation use water in the mineral clearing itself, the clearing Hydraulic very common in alluvial mines like sand. Finally, some methods of exploitation, such as dredged, they are underwater, removing sediments off the bottom of the bodies of water and placing them in suspension.
The concentration of the farms like industrial breeding gives a surplus of animal excrement which ends up in rivers and underground aquifers constituting a source of bacteriological pollution. Chemical fertilizers of nitrates and phosphates alter the quality of groundwater. They reach underground by infiltration of water through the ground layers. Herbicides and insecticides accumulate in soils and groundwater.
Domestic pollution originates from domestic wastewater, water from rain washing the streets, and shops (Kahiluoto, H. E. L. E. N. A., et al. 2115). At home, water from toilets and washrooms form one primary source of water pollution. Chemicals like organic fats washing powders and detergents too constitute to pollution of this valuable element.
The control of the emission sources entails the risk of transferring pollution from one medium to another, where they can cause environmental problems equally dangerous, or even finish acting as an indirect source of pollution for the same medium. Although less expensive than corrective actions, the control of the emission sources can increase the costs of production processes considerably without adding any value. Also, this type of controls entails additional costs arising from mandatory compliance with valid regulations
Control and prevention of water pollution are essential to save the world. From water pollution, waste is considered an unwanted by-product of processes of production. The processes must be controlled to ensure that resources of land water and air are not contaminated above levels considered acceptable. There is a need to encourage the idea of recycling and pollution prevention. Chemical seepage into the ground is a significant threat to groundcover (Kekec, G. & Cosgun, 377). In response to the many pieces of evidence of severe contamination produced by the treatment of waste, governments and municipal authorities have adopted regulations to impose Acceptable practices of collection, treatment, and disposal of waste and guarantee the protection of the environment. It has been devoted special attention to the definition of the criteria of dumping without risk to the environment based on landfills controlled, incineration and waste treatment dangerous.
To avoid a possible environmental overload and costs associated with waste disposal and to promote more careful management of scarce resources, each time is devoting more attention to minimization and recycling of waste. Some aspects should be considered when recycling is proposed as the best strategy for the treatment of waste. One aspect is considering the potential risks pollution workers get exposed to. Many times the water management is done in together with the management of solid waste, when these can be one of the sources of contamination - such is the case of confinement of the waste.
Pollution control and prevention aim at applying measures, practices, and sources of energy. This application prevents or minimizes the creation of pollutants and waste at the source, instead of having to resort to other control measures. Although the commitment of the companies is a critical factor to prevent pollution manufacturing companies must be regulated not to drain their toxic waste into our rivers (Shon and Vigneswaran, 327). Awareness should be created across the states on the social benefits of risk reduction for the ecosystem and health, especially the health of workers. It also identifies the principles that can be applied successfully to assess the feasibility of this approach.
Use of chemicals is increasing and unless it is controlled, water sources will continue getting contaminated. Water bodies being home for aquatic animals should be free from dumping. Controlling dumping at the beaches and on the coastlines should be improved to save the marine life. Research on efficient and cheap methods of treating effluent from industries before draining it into rivers should be put in motion. The public should also be educated on the importance of water conservation.
Akpor, Oghenerobor Benjamin, Gladys Onolunose Ohiobor, and Tomilola Debby Olaolu. "Heavy metal pollutants in wastewater effluents: sources, effects and remediation." Advances in Bioscience and Bioengineering 2.4 (2014): 37-43.
Ge, Shijian, et al. "Detection of nitrifiers and evaluation of partial nitrification for wastewater treatment: a review." Chemosphere 140 (2015): 85-98.
Kahiluoto, H. E. L. E. N. A., et al. "Phosphorus in manure and sewage sludge more recyclable than in soluble inorganic fertilizer." Environmental science & technology 49.4 (2015): 2115-2122.
Kekec, G. & Cosgun, S. (2015). "Genotoxicity potentials of anionic and cationic amino acid-based surfactants," Toxicology and industrial health, 31, 377-385.
Shon, H. K., S. Vigneswaran, and S. A. Snyder. "Effluent organic matter (EfOM) in wastewater: constituents, effects, and treatment." Critical reviews in environmental science and technology 36.4 (2006): 327-374.
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