Sociology is a discipline considered distinct from psychology and philosophy because of the necessity to give priority to the social factors instead of specific individuals. Durkheim used the idea of social factors that affect the members of the society by differentiating sociology from other disciplines such as psychology and philosophy. The social factors include the cultural norms and structures considered external but relevant over individual considerations. Under sociology, Durkheim was specifically interested in morality and moral judgment, meaning that the members of the society and leaders must make wise moral and social decisions as this will affect everybody irrespective of their social statuses. One of the real-life situations in which Durkheim's concepts can be applicable is UKs Brexit historic vote. Under this consideration, some sections of the populace considered it wise to leave the European Union while others considered it necessary to remain, and this can be attributed to their perception of the benefits and cons of either leaving or staying in the EU. Some of the Durkheim's concepts that can be used to explain the advantages and disadvantages of leaving the EU include the division of labor, functionalism, and the mechanical and organic solidarity.
Mechanical and Organic Solidarity
Mechanical sodality is applicable in situations where the individuals of a particular social group consider themselves as self-sufficient, meaning that they believe that they can survive on their own without any form of external intervention in the form of assistance. For instance, this Durkheims concept can be applicable to the Brexit scenario as the UK considered themselves self-sufficient and thus could survive on their own. The cons associated with this belief are that the exit means that Britain will have to control its borders, implying that the number of immigrants entering the region will be minimal. Even if such immigrants claim a lot of resources, they are still useful to the development of the economy.
The immigrants pay taxes like other citizens and even contribute more than what they receive in the form of benefits from Britain. This means that leaving the Union will mitigate a number of benefits that Britain receives from the immigrants. Therefore, even if Britain considers itself as self-sufficient, it was necessary for the leaders to advocate for the necessity of remaining in the union. Organic solidarity happens when the populace is stratified into small sections and structural units. In this case, the levels of interdependence are high, but there still exist the division of people based on their skills and knowledge. This means that the decision to leave the EU can be detrimental to the economy because people needs to rely on one another for the acquisition of skills and competencies.
Division of Labor
In the current world, the society has become more complex because of specialization. People are different regarding skills, competence, and values, and thus Britain should welcome more people, including the immigrants because they can contribute to scientific innovation. Therefore, leaving the EU means that Britain will have to forgo the benefits offered by the specialized immigrants in various fields, thus forming the major disadvantage of the decision. Additionally, another major blow for leaving the EU is that Britain will no longer receive some of the specialized services (even if it has its personnel) such as the jobs offered by the EU. As a result, some of the British nationals will eventually lose their jobs because of the willingness of dissociating itself with the Union.
Nevertheless, leaving the EU is advantageous. Several countries that are not part of the EU are still progressing economically and thus being an EU member is not a direct guarantee for economic success. For instance, the Scandinavian countries have been developing continually over time, and it should be noted that in the case of an economic crisis affecting the world, even the EU members are affected. Additionally, Britain should consider leaving the EU because the Union is still yet to make a major economic deal with other developed countries as a way of increasing its markets. Therefore, leaving the Union will give Britain a chance of striking trade agreements with countries such as India and China, meaning that its membership is detrimental to international opening up of markets.
Functionalism is Durkheim's third concepts to be considered and is mainly based on social equilibrium. Once a decision has been made such as leaving the EU, the members of the society and the government will have to adjust themselves to cope up with the new situation and eventually retain a stable state. The immigrants in Britain supported by the EU pay taxes and even Britain directly benefits since the Union has links with other countries, thus providing technical skills. Additionally, the immigrants participate in various economic activities from which the government and the citizens benefit. Leaving the EU will cause a state of disequilibrium, and before Britain stabilizes, it will have lost economically.
Even if leaving the EU will cause a state of instability, this will be on a short-term since after some time, Britain can boost its influence in the world instead of relying on the Union. For instance, several countries such as the U.S. have managed to progress and exert significant influence in the world. This is a significant advantage since Britain will be able to enter into trade agreements that favor it and thus regain its economic stability as early as possible.
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