Before the scientific innovations on cancer treatment, people only believed that intact immune responses could be the only the way to prevent the spread of tumor that causes cancer. For so long people have concentrated on the traditional belief forgetting that there are unresolved immune response, for instance, the chronic inflammation can also enhance the spread of cancer. Less attention has been given to the unresolved immune response and as a result, most of people have suffered from the disease without their consent. Scientific innovations have improved the understanding of cancer and its control measures.
Cancer has been a major threat to human life for many years in the past. Scientific innovations have reduced the threat. However, it still becomes a threat because in spite of the innovations and improvement, not everyone can still afford the treatment. This paper will focus on the metastatic cancer; its signs, immune mechanisms, preventions and suggested solutions in the future approach of the disease. Metastatic cancer is a type of cancer that spreads from one part of the body to other parts of the body not directly connected to the affected part. Cancer begins with one cell in the tissue getting affected and within a short period of time it spread to other parts of the body. If quick action is not taken to prevent it, it can lead to great damage of tissue cells and in most cases it may lead to death.
Metastatic cancer has the following symptoms and signs; metastatic cancer patient in most cases experiences headache, seizure, nausea, jaundice, and cough. In addition, the patients normally have challenges in breathing and severe bone pains. Metastatic cancer normally attacks the following body organs; lungs, liver, brain and bones. Bone metastasis patients normally experience extreme bone pains. This may result to other injuries such as broken bones or paralysis. However, it may be very difficult to distinguish someone who suffers from bone metastasis at early age.
Metastatic cancer is normally caused by existence of leukocytes in tumors. Cancer is mostly caused by the chronic infections. Drug abuse can also contribute to the cause and spread of cancer. For example, smoking and taking any inhalant pollutants can highly subject one to cancer risk. In addition, the diet people take also determine the percentage risk people subject themselves. For instance, taking too much sugary foods can cause obesity which may result to cancer. Metastasis normally occurs when cancer cells divides from the starting point and it spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream into the bone marrow. In most cases, the patient may not feel or witness the symptoms because the cancer cells normally hide in the bone marrow for a very long time. Sometimes, the cancer cells may develop new blood vessels in which they use to obtain oxygen and other nutrients for their growth. In this case, it can result in growth of tumors.
Cancer has proven very difficult to treat over the past years. However, through the scientific developments, scientists have managed to come up with strategies that can be used to prevent such instances of cancer. Metastasis is the major cause of most of the cancerous infections. According to research studies, high percentage of cancerous infections is caused by the metastasis.
Immune surveillance is considered to be one of the most effective of preventing further spread of cancer in the body. It is a process whereby the cellular cells act as the body protector against further spread of cancerous infection.
The immune system plays a major role in the prevention of metastatic cancer. It recognizes and eliminates the infected cancerous cells. This process is normally called elimination phase where the affected cells are prevented from spreading further in the body. Another function that the immune system performs in the body is to control the growth of cancerous cells from spreading to other parts of the body. This stage is known as equilibrium phase where the affected cells are only controlled from spreading further but it does not eliminate the tumor cells. The next function is that the immune system continues to divide the affected cells from the unaffected. This process is called escape phase.
In the past decades, cancer was a great threat to human life because there was no cure established yet for the disease. However, with time a cure for cancer was developed and now cancer can be referred to several therapeutic measures. Cancer preventions include the following: first, chemotherapy has been identified as one of the ways to control cancer. In this case, induced inflammation stimulates an antigen through the tumor infiltrating dendritic cells. As a result, the cells trigger production of cytokines that enhance adaptive anti- tumor immunity.
Submission to anti- inflammatory drugs has been considered as another method of controlling cancer. However, the ant-inflammatory drugs cannot function effectively alone, but it requires addition of other conventional therapies that will help to kill the affected cancerous cells (Grivennikov, Sergei I., Florian R. Greten, and Michael Karin, 2010). Ant- inflammatory drugs have been recommended for cancer treatment. However, in most cases it recommended to be used as prophylactics.
In addition, ant- inflammatory drugs can slow down the progression and immortality rate. Surgery activates the infection stress- sensing channels while subjection to radiation kills the cancer cells. Immunotherapy has been considered the best chances of treating cancer. This is because immune- based therapies normally functions through a mechanism that is different to that of chemotherapy and radiation. The B and T cells have been highly recognized by their contributions to control and protection of the body from tumor exposures. The two cells are known for their high maximization of toxicity in which they combine with their respective antigen receptor cells.
Studies have revealed that the tumor can only be reduced in the body through the use of the immunosuppressive mechanisms. According to clinical studies over the past ten years on cancer control, activation of antitumor immune response can lead to assist in preventing exposure to cancerous risks (Grivennikov, Sergei I., Florian R. Greten, and Michael Karin, 2010). In addition, natural immune system of the body can be enhanced through maximizing the natural immune response. This can only be done through increasing the antibody response such as anti- CTLA-4. Furthermore, natural immune system can be enhanced through vaccination.
The microenvironment of the internal body organs enhances the performance of the immune system response. The environment favors the immune system regulators. In addition, the cell intrinsic mechanisms contain MHC molecules which increase the rate of immunosuppressive molecules production. This further contributes to maximum body protection against cancerous risk exposure.
There are several methods of enhancing the tumor control. According to research study, injecting antigens such; as TLR9 into the affected area directly can assist to reduce the spread of tumor to other parts of the body. This will help to trigger the antitumor immune response which results to tumor control. In addition, cancer treatment vaccines have also been considered one of the best ways to reduce cancer from spreading to other parts of the body. Cancer treatment vaccines are designed in such a way that they contain antigens that improves the performance of body protecting mechanisms.
Treatment of cancer has been a great challenge for the past years. First, there has been large population suffering from cancer. This makes it difficult for the hospitals to carry the treatment procedures effectively. In addition, there are inadequate skilled physicians who can offer the required services. The ratio of the available doctors to that of the affected patients is not comparable. There are many people suffering from cancer and with few doctors to offer treatment assistance. Training should be emphasized on the subject. Every hospital should have at least one physician with knowledge of cancer. Not like the current case where some hospitals are even lacking physicians with required skills.
The cost of treating cancer is very expensive. With the technological advancement, cancer has become a treatable disease. It is no longer a big threat to the society as was the case there before. In spite of the improvement and solution to a life threat, it is still a big threat to many people. Not everyone can afford to pay the surgery cost in order to undergo the required treatment. People have different capabilities and only those who can afford the cost are the ones who can get the privilege of obtaining treatment. Therefore, the government should assist those incapable of paying up their hospital cost through reducing the cost fee for surgery. Everyone is entitled to good health and the government should look into that and ensure that its citizens are well taken care of.
Cancer has become another threatening disease because most people are now subjected to cancerous risks. Some are even children at very young age. Nowadays, even children are diagnosed with cancer (Bogenrieder, Thomas, and Meenhard Herlyn, 2003). This is mainly because of the type of diet they take. Therefore, public education should be enhanced to increase public awareness. In addition, cancer prevention measures should be incorporated in the school curriculum in order to increase the awareness among the students. They should be told what they are supposed to eat and what they are not supposed to eat. This will help reduce the cases of cancer in children.
Another challenge in cancer treatment is that the process is very expensive and the machines used to carry out the procedure are expensive (Bogenrieder, Thomas, and Meenhard Herlyn, 2003). This has been the major reason as to why most of the hospitals are not able to offer the treatment. The government should put more emphasis on equipping hospitals with the current cancer treatment machines in order to reduce cases of people suffering from cancer and some even die and yet the disease can be treated.
The methods of treating cancer are very dangerous to human life, especially the subjection to radiation x-rays. Therefore, there should be a better way to improve the process because too much exposure to x-ray radiations can lead to damage of cells and hence other health effects. The physicians applying the treatment should be very keen in their judgment because it may not be good to subject someone radiations unless necessary.
In conclusion, cancer can be treated and this has relieved so many people from the burden of suffering. However, prevention is better than cure. Causes of cancers can mostly be prevented. For instance, one can keep off from smoking and other inhalant toxic substances that may cause chronic inflammation. In addition, people should be very courteous of what they eat and ensure that what they eat is healthy. This paper has examined overview of metastatic cancer; causes, symptoms and preventions....
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