In the efforts of SPARC in building decent housing in the Dharavi slums, the shift from thinking about Government To Governance has been expressed severally. SPARC initiated the project with a view to continue their community development goals. The Slum Dwellers Foundation was mainly based at grassroots level, creating a connection between the corporate and the grassroots due to their understanding of matters on the ground. SPARC and the Slum Dwellers Foundation had their meager resources obtained from cash reserves, and bridge financing which involved shuffling money from other accounts. Citibank group on the other hand had the finances and skilled manpower to drive the construction of the housing units. Citibank was in possession of capital and human resource skilled in project management, risk analysis and viability studies. They hoped to capitalize on the profitability of the venture and cash in on the marketing and sales opportunities brought about by the project. The partners in the project try to employ their resources in order to succeed in the project. Each group makes use of its available resources to achieve the best possible results or gains for them from the project. The efforts of the partners denote a demonstration of governance.
The Nitaqat endeavor aimed at tackling Saudi unemployment is a government initiative aimed at increasing the number of employed Saudis. The initiative uses the governments ability to offer incentives and to withdraw privileges through its legislation to companies that replace expats with Saudis.
Tensions between rational policymaking and policymaking in the polis
The problems experienced by the partners in the Dharavi housing project are assailing them from various angles. The real estate market at the time the project idea was in discussion stages was stable. However, when the project started, shifts were experienced in the market that led to changes in the market. The changes impact negatively on the fundamentals of the whole project which mainly depends on the availability of buyers to obtain units that would return the investors money. Moreover, changes in legislation made the existing scope of construction illegal the law changed that led to a reduction in the population density allowed in areas next to waterways, therefore undermining the whole project in addition, new executives at the financier, Citibank, led to a slowing of progress and derailment of the earlier agreement. These differences highlight the results of different decision making procedures employed by the partners in their approach to the project. Citibank in its decision making considers the changes and does not rely on the unknown factors. . SPARC and the Slum Dwellers Foundation however, use a rational policy making design. They factor in the determinants based on their experience which includes speculating on what Citibank considers as the unknown.
The Nitaqat endeavor is seen as an initiative based on politically influenced rather than rational policy making. The policy is made based on the opinions of the political leaders. The political leaders sit at the top of the decision making pyramid. Their decisions are not majorly influenced by the rational way of thought but by factors such as the opinion of the public and beliefs. The Nitaqat endeavor demonstrates tension between rational policymaking and policymaking in the polis because the private sector and government differ in their policies regarding expats.
The core problem expressed here is the inability of companies to retain women in the workforce. Among the fundamental issues that may assist in solving the problem is the psychological aspect of the matter. Women in the labor force face a lot of problems that their male counterparts do not face. Most of the problems are brought about by external factors that in turn affect internal aspects and as a result, hamper the stay of women in the workforce.
One key issue is identity. Identity is a crisis for many Saudi women. Given the history of women and work, many Saudi women are made to feel like they do not belong to the workplace. They eventually do not identify with the workplace and as a result feel alienated from the work environment. Government policy does not cater for building a positive identity for women in the workplace, to make them identify with a male dominated field. In order to assist women to be integrated in the workforce in the long term, women should be educated and encouraged on their importance in the workforce. They should be shown they have a place in the workforce by establishing a conducive environment that is not sexist or discriminatory.
The second key aspect is self-esteem. Given the historical prejudices that women have encountered over the course of their history, they are susceptible to low self-esteem. The problem of self-esteem is inflicted by both the environment and the person. A lot of women are led to believe they have little to offer in their personality. Male dominance has made women to be viewed customarily as weak and not fit for productive economical work that is dominated by men. Consequently, some women believe they are not worthy of positions of power or any positions at all. This is because their self-esteem and sense of self-worth is impaired by the traditional prejudices towards women. The government can help women boost their self-esteem by trusting them with power positions and educating the public on the equal capabilities of men and women in the workforce. The Ministry can offer incentives to women who strive and show ambition or desire to prosper in the workforce. Consequently, those who do not believe in their abilities will be encouraged to try and participate on an equal platform.
The third aspect that the Ministry needs to consider is equality and fairness. Given the current situation, women are disadvantaged for a number of reasons. They have historical prejudices and misconceptions to beat. Moreover, traditional beliefs hinder their chances of advancing their careers. Therefore, the Ministry has to develop a strategy to level the odds for women in the workforce. The efforts should not just be directed at the companies that hire them, but also at the individual women. Women should be given additional support that will enable them to cope with the challenges in the workforce. An example of such support is better leave package that includes extended pregnancy leave. Moreover, there should be protection from ills such as abuse or sexual harassment.
Lastly, women should be afforded motivation in the workforce. The existing motivation factors do not seem to do enough in making women continue their stay in the workforce. The existing conditions do not seem favorable enough.. therefore, it is vital to look for more motivation by conducting surveys and finding out what would motivate women to stay longer and prosper in numbers in the workplace.
The issue of exploitation of manicurists by their employers can fit in several places as an example in the book Policy Paradox: The Art of Political Decision Making. In Chapter 1, it can be used as an example to demonstrate the issues that fall under common problems. The exploitation of manicurists by employers leads to private benefit but at a social cost. The salon owners and clients benefit in their ways at the expense of thousands of workers who do the manicures.
Moreover, still in chapter one, it can be used to show the cooperation between the salon owners and the manicurists. It is a relationship of subordination rather than coercion because the manicurists can quit if they desire, but they have a living to make and therefore have to make a concession and work under the power of the salon owners.
In addition, the article can also be used in Chapter 2 to denote vertical equity. There is unequal distribution of resources in between the salon owners and the manicurists. The salon owners get a huge chunk of the spoils and only let a meager fraction trickle down to the manicurists.
Also, it can be used in Chapter 3 to show the use of efficiency. The salon owners have little input compared to the manicurists. The manicurists work long shifts and have to give quality output while the salon owner bags most of the rewards. The manicurists bear the burden of the working relationship.
In addition, the article can be used as an example of the paradox of liberty discussed in chapter 5. The manicurists are essentially free but in real sense, they are bound to the service of the salon owners.
Lastly, it can be used in chapter 7 to sow the effect of numbers. When numbers are significant enough, they can be used to impact on policy. The number of salons and manicurists is significant enough for the welfare of manicurists to influence policy change.
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