Understanding the culture of parties is an essential ingredient to successful negotiations. According to Salacuse (2004), some cultures have low sensitivity to time while others have a high sensitivity to punctuality. For Germans and Americans, regard to time is high, and they often want to cut deals and proceed to other matters. Low sensitivity to time can be interpreted as a lack of professionalism or commitment to the negotiations. On other hand, Nigerians, Latins Spanish have low sensitivity to time. Similarly, Chinese Japanese and Indians regard negotiations as a relationship-building process while Americans widely consider negotiations as avenues for contracts do be reached, and therefore, do not prefer a lot of time to be spent in the process.
The case of Hunter Panels and a resident of Fayette County in which Sandra Robertson was awarded $13m for discrimination, has a lot to reveal alongside the Coca-cola case regarding discrimination. The cases show how the process of hiring can be discriminative to employees based on their gender. One can learn that the harassment and discrimination the employees in question went through was a result of diversity issues within the affected organization. Organizations stand to lose if they fail to accommodate minorities and women. The losses can be both in market access and compensations as a result of lawsuits. Besides, employees who lack a sense of belonging as a result of cannot adequately offer their skills to the benefit of the organization.
Women tend to employ indirect communication in the management of people. They show empathy and are often bent towards building relationships and harmony among teams. Unlike men who give straightforward directions on organizational goals, women may tend to manage people by making suggestions and explaining the rationale behind the suggestions for the benefit of the teams (Bell & Smith, 2010).Bell and Smith argue that such a communication style fosters teamwork as a result of its ability to fit in groups composed of diverse cultures. However, in the modern business environment, some circumstances do not require consensus building to effect decisions. Some situations can be worse in a male-dominated environment.
Democratic manhood is a concept that espouses equality and inclusive participation of people of all gender, races and ethnicity in the management of issues in all spheres of public life (Burke & Major, 2014).The concept seeks to fight against patriarchy, injustice, and advocates for inclusivity in private and public engagements as a way of solving problems affecting humanity. Citing earlier works on democratic manhood, Burke and Major (2014) proffer that the concept can help men to foster relationships with women, challenge and remake social systems so that they and women can prosper (p.160)
The glass ceiling in American business can be reduced through mentorship so as to sell women skills and abilities. Encouraging mentoring relationships can help women employees to navigate the challenges of outspokenness and the fear in expressing their skills and capabilities (Johns, 2013).Such an arrangement will assist them to scale the organizational ladder due to career mobility. Addressing preconceptions and stereotypes can also help in overcoming intrinsic barriers. The approach should include both women and men as attitudes exist in both genders regarding the capability and skills of women. Moreover, promotion of gender-neutral activities such as field teams and excursions can bridge gaps with men.
Bell, A. H., & Smith, D. M. (2010). Management communication (10th ed.). New York: Wiley.
In Burke, R. J., & In Major, D. A. (2014). Gender in organizations: Are men allies or adversaries to women's career advancement?
Johns, M. L. (2013). Breaking the Glass Ceiling: Structural, Cultural, and Organizational Barriers Preventing Women from Achieving Senior and Executive Positions. Perspectives in Health Information Management. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3544145/
Salacuse, J. W. (2004). Negotiating: The Top Ten Ways that Culture Can Affect Your Negotiation. IVEY Business journal. Retrieved from http://iveybusinessjournal.com/publication/negotiating-the-top-ten-ways-that-culture-can-affect-your-negotiation/
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