In your own words, explain why Plato does not think that the definition of justice is to help friends if they are good and to harm enemies if they are bad.
Plato used the word Dikaisyne, a Greek word, for justice and it is related to righteousness or morality. It includes the entire duties of an individual. He additionally explained that justice deals with the quality of an individual's soul (Santas, 2001). This thus means that someone should eliminate irrational desires to engage in all kinds of pleasure or to become interested in selfish satisfaction. This, therefore, means that Plato does not think justice includes harming one's enemies.
Plato also explained justice as a way in which one does his or her jobs. A person thus does not meddle in other people's businesses but only aims to do good to others. Justice is also defined as having non-interference. This means that a person who minds his or her own business has no time to get revenge on those who hurt him. Additionally, Plato explains that justice is harmony (Santas, 2001). Harmony does not involve harming other people. Justice is a virtue that aims at creating rational order in the society. It does not also negatively affect the effective functioning of other parts. Commitment to justice is a commitment to rationalism. Acting rationally, on the other hand, does not involve harming others.
According to Allan Johnson, Societies are patriarchal to the degree to which they are male-dominated, male-identified, and male-centered. In your own words, define and give an example of each of these terms. Make sure to explain why the example is an example of the term.
Male dominance is whereby men hold positions of authority in the various organizations and situations. Women are left to deal with issues behind the scene. An example is whereby the top positions like the managerial positions in organizations are held by male individuals. Other examples include the right to vote and the right to own property (Johnson, 2004). This has, however, changed in the secular and democratic society whereby male dominance is not the policy in place. Women are allowed to vote, to own business organizations, to hold to positions in the organizations, to own property, and to work for pay at the end of the day or month. Nevertheless, by virtually viewing any media, there are some trace that the world is a man's world where most institutions are still male-dominated. Men are still in the leadership positions in the various organizations (Johnson, 2004). Some part of the world reserve the economic and political authority only for men.
Male-identified societies are those that the core cultural perception of what is desirable, good, normal or preferable is associated with the ideas of the male individuals. An example is whereby the word man is used to mean both men and women. Another example is whereby in movies, the heroes characters are expected to have masculine characteristics such as being tough and steely (Johnson, 2004). Women in the society are rising to take the leadership positions, but they are expected to take this positions and portray some masculine characteristics, for example, toughness. Even though today things have changed, those who portray some female characteristics are bound to be rebuked.
Being male-centered, on the other hand, means that the experiences of male individuals are perceived as the experiences of every human being (Johnson, 2004). Examples include having movies whose stories primarily focus on what men have done and have not done, taking medical research on men and making assumptions that the same would apply in a case of a woman, and cases where men dominate in conversations. The examples try to show how men and women are ranked differently in the society. Men have the dominant positions. There are only a few women at the top who are competitive enough, but the males are normally at the top (Johnson, 2004). Those who deny their positions in such a hierarchy are often ridiculed, and this explains why the people have accepted the male individuals to be dominant.
Name two things Tuana asks you to look for when reading philosophy "as a woman" When you pay attention to those two things in the text, what do you notice?
Tuana asks a woman to identify the normative and the descriptive components. The normative components entail how women are supposed to be treated and viewed based on a background of moral position and justice. An example is a case where men and women are viewed to have equal rights. Descriptive components, on the other hand, describe how women are treated and viewed, with an allegiance that they are not treated according to the standards of morality and justice. An example is where some rights do not favor the female individuals (Tuana & Tang, 1995). These two components provide a means of changing how the female is viewed in the society. The descriptive component explains the social mechanisms of female deprivation of their rights. The disagreements that arise when talking about feminism are due to the various claims that the normative and descriptive components hold. There are often differences between what is just and what is not just for women.
Explain why John Rawls thinks the "veil of ignorance" is an important part of "justice as fairness."
The veil of ignorance is a process of defining political and morality issues. Justice as fairness, on the other hand, is the theory that Rawls believes works for a liberal society. Parties that are subjected to the veil of ignorance make their choices after having some moral considerations and do not base their decisions on class-interest or self-interest (Blocker & Smith, 1980). It is thus important in making decisions fair and just decisions since all citizens are equal and free. Justice and fairness is a sign of liberation in a society. It is thus true to say that the veil of ignorance is essential in the creation of justice as fairness.
Blocker, H. G., & Smith, E. H. (1980). John Rawls' theory of social justice: An introduction. Athens: Ohio University Press.
Johnson, A. G. (2004). Patriarchy, the system. Women's lives: Multicultural perspectives, 25-32.
Santas, G. (2001). Goodness and justice: Plato, Aristotle and the moderns.
Tuana, N., & Tong, R. (1995). Feminism and philosophy: Essential readings in theory, reinterpretation, and application. Boulder, Colo: Westview Press.
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