r = - 0.519 is slightly strong because its value is greater than 0.5, this implies that it is stronger thus r = - 0.519 will be more statistically significant because of its strength.

8.

9.

There is no significant relationship between Hamstring freight Indexes 60% and functional stability because r values keep changing as they ca n either decrease or increase with functional stability.

10. Limitation

Accuracy cannot be easily obtained

It is tedious as it involved large significant figures

May not give true information

Time consuming

Exercise 20

Patient 3, T score = 63

Patient 4, T score = 23

YES. This is because the T score he got is 23 which is less than the average on CULT retrieval that is 47.8 (5.8)

For preoperative acquisition;

The mean = 45.9

The standard deviation = 5.2

Yes. It is above the mean for most of the group which is 47.8, patient 5 had a T score of 52

T score between 45 60

31 39

Yes. Because it involves the use of memory and may not have any effect.

A raw score = 30

Post-operative CVLT retrieval T score = 40

Yes. This is because the T score values Post-operative CVLT retrieval was a bit lower than that of Post-operative CVLT Acquisition.

Exercise 23

1.

r = - 0.149

The value is not significant because r < - 0.03 meaning it is weak.

2.

Considering r = 1.00 and r = - 1.00.

1.00 is stronger because of its positivity and also it is greater than 0.5.

3.

There is a negative relationship between Hamstring Strength Index 60% and the Shuttle run test as they can decrease or increase differently.

4.

There is a positive relationship between Hamstring Strength Index 120% and Triple Index

5.

There is no variable which has the weakest relationship with the Quadriceps Strength Index 120% because they are all greater than 0.3 or -0.3.

6.

Quadriceps strength Index 60% and the triple Hop Index has the strongest relationship, because r value is greater than 0.5 and also it is positive.

7.

r = -0.498 and r = - 0.528

r = - 0.498 is moderate as it falls between the range 0.3 and 0.5.

r = - 0.519 is slightly strong because its value is greater than 0.5, this implies that its stronger thus r = - 0.519 will be more statistically significant because of its strength.

8.

Yes. This is because their r values increases with pre-and Post-operative functional stability.

9.

There is no significant relationship between Hamstring freight Indexes 60% and functional stability because r values keep changing as they ca n either decrease or increase with functional stability.

10.

Quadriceps Strength Index is 120% and the Hop Index (r = 0.744, p = 0.000), if r = 0.744 it means there is a strong and positive relationship between the two and hence statistically significant. P 0.00 means there is no clinical importance between Quadriceps Strength Index and the Hop Index

Exercise 24

1.

r = 0.32* is the r value listed for the relationship between variables 4 and 9.

2.

r = 0.32**. Yes this is because it is more than 0.3 which means it has moderate relationship and it is also clinically important.

3.

r = 0.53

r2 = 5.32 = 28.09% of the variance.

It is clinically important because the percentage of variance is more than 9%.

4.

r = 0.15

It is listed as the correlation between variable 3 and 7 [The positives from LOT-R] It shows that the relationship is weak and not clinically important. The effect size is 0.15. It is positive and small for the relationship between positive items and Avoidance-distraction (Coping Style).

5.

R = 0.15

(0.15)2 x 100 = 2.25

It is not clinically important because it is less than 9% from the r value = 0.3

6.

Variable 6 and 7 have the weakest correlation or r value. Weak relationship is closest to this r value, because it is less than 0.3

7.

Correlation between LOT-R Total scores and Avoidance-Distraction coping style is statistically significant because most of their values are greater than 0.3 which indicate a strong relationship.

8.

Correlation between variables 9 and 4 is not statistically significant because there is no relationship that exists between the two.

9.

r = 0.08 and r = - 0.58

r = 0.08 indicates a weak relationship whereas r = - 0.58 indicates a strong relationship implying that the two do not correlate.

r = 0.08 is not clinically important whereas r = - 0.58 is clinically important.

10.

LOT R Total task and Emotion coping styles. The results of LOT-R Total is more than that of Task Coping Style, while that of emotion do fluctuate depending on the variables. LOT-R Total has a strong relationship while both coping styles have weak relationship

Exercise 36

1.

F(1,22) = 9.619, p = 0.005, where F is the statistic for ANOVA and the group df = 1 and the error df = 22. The F ratio or value = 0.5 which is significant at p = 0.005

2.

Null hypothesis is 13.4. It should be adjusted because it does not give a true picture.

3.

Yes it is significant, the probability is 11.4/12 = 0.95

4.

No. This is because statistically 0.001 is slightly relevant hence may not be significant

5.

F(3,60) = 4.13, p = 0.04 and alpha = 0.01

F is the statistic for ANOVA and the group df = 1 and the error of df = 60. The f ratio or value = 4 which is significant at p = 0.04 and alpha 0.01 is significant too. Thus the null hypothesis should be accepted.

6.

No. This is because ANOVA can only be used in large group and not a single ANOVA is used when it involves large number

7.

F(2, 147) = 4.56, p = 0.0003

F is the statistics for ANOVA and the group df = 2 and the error =147. The F ratio or value = 0.3 which is significant at p = 0.003. There are two groups. Sample size = 79

8.

Strengths

Information will be obtained from different sources

May bring about accurate results

Easy to handle few people

Weaknesses

May involve use of many resources

More time is required while managing two groups

Determination of accurate may be difficult

9.

Yes. This is because researchers think that Guided imagery reduces aor decreases pain and mobility. This may be fact or not

10.

Limitations

May take time for them to complete

Too expensive as more spending may be required

It may be a bit tiresome

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