|Type of paper:||Essay|
|Categories:||Learning Languages Developmental psychology Cognitive development|
Psycholinguistics is also known as the psychology of language. It involves the study of the mental aspects of expression and speech with the primary concern of language presentation and processing in the brain (Nordquist, 2019). It is a branch of linguistics and psychology as a field of cognitive science. Its scientific discipline with a coherent theory goal which ensures the production and understanding of language juxtaposes a mental mechanism aimed at making it possible for people to use language. Bilingualism involves one's ability or the entire community's ability to speak two languages effectively. Given psycholinguistics, what then is the knowledge of the language required of us to use language? Also, in the ordinary use of language, what are the cognitive processes involved? Psycholinguistics, therefore, underscores the computation and representation of the meanings of words, sentences, and discourse in mind by drawing knowledge from semantics, pure linguistics, and phonetics.
Short and Long-Term Consequences of Bilingualism in Information Processing
Bilingualism can be possessed by an individual, group, or society. It can be caused by the need for a better understanding of one's language, widened brain, global perspectives, and experiences of fulfilling's travel adventures. Usually, there occur in two forms, early bilingualism, and late bilingualism, whereby early bilingualism occurs in two ways, simultaneous early bilingualism, and successive early bilingualism. Late bilingualism, on the other hand, occurs after learning of a second language, probably at the ages of 6 or 7, prevalent at adolescence or adulthood. Bilingualism has both long-term and short-term merits and demerits
Cognitive Consequences of Bilingualism
A bilingual's personal use of one language activates the other expression at the same time. A notion commonly referred to as language activation. The language activation may result in difficulties since bilingual speakers may take longer to name pictures coupled with an increase of the tip of the tongue taste, which informs the challenges of finding the right words, albeit there are memories of specific details (Marian, & Shook, 2012).
Additionally, the juggling of two languages underlies the need for control in the access of literature by a person at a particular time. Failure to that vital communicative standpoint leads to difficulties in understanding the message owing to the interference from the other language. A bilingual person is therefore compelled to use his control mechanisms during speech and in listening, resulting in brain dynamisms. Moreover, as opposed to monolinguals that ignore irrelevant information, bilinguals have the ability to perform better in conflict management tasks owing top their possession of inhibitory control (Kroll, & Bialystok, 2014). Bilinguals can use their inhibitory control in ignoring of words and focusing on the color font couple with switching between tasks.
Consequences of Bilingualism on Language, Cognition, Development, and Brain
In the realms of linguistics, bilingual children, unlike their peers who are monologue, tend a new understanding of their taxonomic relationships. Their perception does not depend on the size of vocabulary, albeit influenced by the speaker's language structural features (Marian, Shah, Kaushanskaya, Blumenfeld, &Sheng, 2009). Additionally, bilingual adults are more equipped in learning new words as compared to monologues since bilinguals have better strategies of word learning with the same efficiency and devoid of interference from orthographic information that may be conflicting. In the cognitive realm, bilinguals may efficiently inhibit both verbal and nonverbal information owing to their inhibitory control activity, which slowly declines with their age than monolinguals (Marian et al., .2009). Similarly, bilingual children underscore superior performances in not only cognitive mental skills but also in divergent thinking and discrimination on the figure-ground. In terms of the differences in the neuron, language processing is prevalent in early bilinguals, and that is coupled with the fact that it possesses higher gray matter density in their regions of the left hemisphere than the monologues (Marian et al., 2009).
Unique Properties of Human Language
Human language underscores select properties that make it unique and different from other conventional systems used by other species. Human language, for instance, has displacement meaning the power of communication can allow us to refer to absent or temporary things like heaven, angels. That is a vital trait that makes us question things in our lives, something that is absent in the animal kingdom (Alroqi, 2019). Unlike animals who have designed communication for the next date and time, humans can use language to refer to past, present, and future. Displacement as a unique form of human language, therefore, underlies human language property that allows the users of the word to refer to things that are not present in the immediate moment, a feature that does not exist in animal communication.
Additionally, human language is creative or productive, meaning that they can create new expressions continually coupled with descriptive utterances of new situations and objects; they have infinitive declarations. That is contrary to other species and animals that do not possess that flexibility since they have limited or fixed signals and cannot create new signs describing their experiences. Moreover, human language possesses cultural transmissions since they can acquire language from other speakers' cultures, a notion that is contrary to other animals who are born with distinctive signals that are instinctively produced. Finally, human language has the trait of recursion, meaning that they are not limited in putting words, phrases, and sentences inside themselves. That kind of flexibility does not exist in animal language.
Why Learning How to Read Is More Challenging Than Learning How to Speak in One's Primary Language
The human brain is hard-wired with the spoken language since the evolution of the human language dates back to 100000 years ago, making the human mind be fully adapted to language processing (Moats, & Tolman, 2009). Additionally, reading and writing are skills that are acquired when the brains of humans are not evolved fully, albeit their ability to speak is naturally wired in their mind; hence reading and writing should be taught directly. It is no wonder a child would usually learn how to talk even at the age of ten months through recognition of sounds of speech-language said by caregivers. However, reading even in adults, albeit exposed to print media, spelling, mastery of language, reading, and writing, maybe very challenging hence most people depend on direct teaching or systematic dependence in the quest to become literate.
Ambiguities and Why They Go Unnoticed
Uncertainty refers to a phrase with more than one meaning that may lead to confusion, vagueness, or responsibility for shaping the basis of humor that is unintended. However, ambiguity can sometimes go unnoticed owing to a combination of the readers' or listeners' parsing strategies. That would be explained by the readers' and listeners' preferences to the structures of the simplest possible syntactic that are data compatible. Additionally, ambiguities may not be noticed since most readers prefer assigning roes to things in simple noun phrases than in complex complementary clauses. Additionally, most reader's preference to use most evidence that is a circumstance in the quest of zooming in to a single solution rather than others. Finally, the notion of ambiguity going unnoticed is owed to the fact that there is more evidence with diverse sources of knowledge like semantics syntax, which may immediately affect our parallel parsing.
Possibility of Forgetting First Language While Learning Second language
It is possible to forget words phrases from one's native language when learning a second language through a linguistic phenomenon known as first language attrition. Language attrition makes one scrape for words that they initially knew. That could be explained in the realms of contextual learning of language, and the original language was acquired in the contexts of multisensory. That is through distinctive theory which sees the absorption of words in a productive situation
The Roles of Nature and Nurture in Language Acquisition
Both nature and nurture play vital roles in the acquisition of language, albeit some researchers underscore learning influence on the purchase of speech. At the same time, others emprise on the biological forces of the same. Children, for instance, will develop language faster than learning to speak it; hence their reception is faster than their expression.
Similarly, nature can also influence language as juxtaposed by a behaviorist B.F. Skinner that style majorly depends on the environment (Yuko, 2019). He asserts that it is the conditioning principles like association, imitation, and reinforcement that inform the acquisition of language. It is from that view pint that it is noted that children can associate a sound with objects, events, or actions in learning syntax and word s through imitations as adults reinforce the correct speech in children. Noam Chomsky, father of modern linguistics, on the other hand, viewed nature as a precursor for the development of language and critiqued Skinner for ignoring the creativity of humans in linguistics (Yuqo, 2019).
Psycholinguistics is primarily concerned with the presentation and processing of language in the brain, hence the production and understanding of language. Style is also informed by bilingualism, which tells the ability to use two words effectively. Bilinguals are therefore portrayed to have more positive consequences than monolinguals in terms of language, brain, and cognitive skills.
Alriqi, F. (2019). Animal & Human Language. Lane 321 Introduction to Linguistics. Retrieved from https://www.kau.edu.sa/Files/0008718/files/19338_Chapter%202.pdf
Kroll, J.,& Bialystok, E. (2014, May).Understanding the Concepts of Bilingualism for LanguageProcessing and Cognition.U.S.National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3820916/
Marian, V., Shah, Y., Kaushanksaya, M., Blumenfeld, H., & Sheng, L. (2009).Bilingualism: Consequences of Language, Cognition, Development, and the Brain. Asha Wire. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1044/leader.FTR2.14132009.10
Moats, L., & Tolam, C. (2019). Speaking is natural, and Reading and Writing are not. Reading Rockets. Retrieved from https://www.readingrockets.org/article/speakingnatural-reading-and-writing-are-not
Nordquist, R. (2019, September). What is Psycholinguistics? Thought Co. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/psycholinguistics-1691700
Yuko, H. (2019).Is the development of language a Case of nature or Nurture? Yuqo. Retrieved from https://www.yuqo.com/development-language-nature-nurture/
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