Purpose of the instrument:

Published: 2019-09-30 09:30:00
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The main purpose of the research instrument is to collect data that focuses on the effect of Intercultural Communicative Competence for learners of Arabic as second language. It collects demographic information, personal opinions of different aspects, comparisons of the American and Arab culture, background information from respondents, and assesses the respondents understanding of the Arab world.

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Statistical analysis to describe the socio-demographics of the sample:

The tables below include descriptive statistics and frequency tables derived from SPSS that describe the socio-demographics of the sample.

Section 1: Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation

AgeGroup 25 1 4 2.44 1.121

Gender 25 1 2 1.44 .507

MessageConveyed 25 1 3 1.88 .781

InteractionLevel 25 1 6 3.48 1.194

ArabianRelationships 25 1 5 3.00 1.291

Valid N (listwise) 25 Section 2: Descriptive Statistics

N Minimum Maximum Mean Std. Deviation

Gender 25 1 2 1.60 .500

ArabHasHighestMuslimsConcentration 25 1 3 2.08 .640

IsIranAnArabCountry 25 1 3 1.88 .666

NativeArabsSpeakStandardArab 25 1 4 2.04 .841

AgeGroup 25 1 4 2.56 1.158

ExistenceOfwideArrayOfReligionsInArab 25 1 3 1.92 .702

ArabIslamicCiviliansInfluenceOthers 25 1 3 1.92 .759

AllArabWomenWearHijab 25 1 3 1.96 .841

ArabWomenAreHomeMakers 25 1 3 1.96 .676

AllArbCountriesHaveSimilarEconomies 25 1 3 1.76 .779

Valid N (listwise) 25

Section 3: Frequency Table

AgeGroup

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 16-18 6 24.0 24.0 24.0

19-21 12 48.0 48.0 72.0

22-25 3 12.0 12.0 84.0

over 25 4 16.0 16.0 100.0

Total 25 100.0 100.0 Gender

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid Male 12 48.0 48.0 48.0

Female 13 52.0 52.0 100.0

Total 25 100.0 100.0 NoIntimatePhysicalRelationshipOutOfMarriage

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid Strongly Disagree 5 20.0 20.0 20.0

Disagree 3 12.0 12.0 32.0

I Dont Know 9 36.0 36.0 68.0

Agree 5 20.0 20.0 88.0

Strongly Agree 3 12.0 12.0 100.0

Total 25 100.0 100.0 ArabiansAreIndividualisticThanAmericans

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid Strongly Disagree 5 20.0 20.0 20.0

Disagree 5 20.0 20.0 40.0

I Dont Know 8 32.0 32.0 72.0

Agree 6 24.0 24.0 96.0

Strongly Agree 1 4.0 4.0 100.0

Total 25 100.0 100.0 HospitalityValuedByArabianCulture

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid Strongly Disagree 2 8.0 8.0 8.0

Disagree 10 40.0 40.0 48.0

I Dont Know 7 28.0 28.0 76.0

Agree 5 20.0 20.0 96.0

Strongly Agree 1 4.0 4.0 100.0

Total 25 100.0 100.0 AllahHasStrongIslamicNotation

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 1 6 24.0 24.0 24.0

2 3 12.0 12.0 36.0

3 10 40.0 40.0 76.0

4 3 12.0 12.0 88.0

5 3 12.0 12.0 100.0

Total 25 100.0 100.0 Section 4: Frequency Table

SimilarityOfFamilyLifeOfAmericanCultureAndArabCulture

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 1 3 12.0 12.0 12.0

2 7 28.0 28.0 40.0

3 9 36.0 36.0 76.0

4 4 16.0 16.0 92.0

5 2 8.0 8.0 100.0

Total 25 100.0 100.0 SimilarityOfBehaviourOfAmericanCulureAndArabCulture

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 2 8 32.0 32.0 32.0

3 10 40.0 40.0 72.0

4 6 24.0 24.0 96.0

5 1 4.0 4.0 100.0

Total 25 100.0 100.0 SimilarityOfReligionOfAmericanCultureAndArabCulture

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 2 13 52.0 52.0 52.0

3 5 20.0 20.0 72.0

4 5 20.0 20.0 92.0

5 2 8.0 8.0 100.0

Total 25 100.0 100.0 SimilarityOfMaleFemaleRelationshipInAmericanCultureAndArab

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 2 9 36.0 36.0 36.0

3 10 40.0 40.0 76.0

4 5 20.0 20.0 96.0

5 1 4.0 4.0 100.0

Total 25 100.0 100.0 SimilarityOfWomenStatusInAmericaCultureAndArabCulture

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 2 16 64.0 64.0 64.0

3 2 8.0 8.0 72.0

4 4 16.0 16.0 88.0

5 3 12.0 12.0 100.0

Total 25 100.0 100.0 WhatDoYouExpectToLearnOfArabicCultureInArabicClass

Frequency Percent Valid Percent Cumulative Percent

Valid 1 5 20.0 20.0 20.0

2 4 16.0 16.0 36.0

3 10 40.0 40.0 76.0

4 5 20.0 20.0 96.0

5 1 4.0 4.0 100.0

Total 25 100.0 100.0 Proposed constructs/scales to be measured:

Summated, summary scale (or index):

Using SPSS a summated summary scale was created. The summary scale took into account the summary of the opinions of the respondents with regard to the similarities between the American and Arabic culture, behavior, religion, female relationships, and women status. The created scale was labelled as the Similarities Opinion Scale. The screenshot below shows the numeric expression used in created the summated summary scale. The purpose of the scale is to assess the similarities between American and Arab culture based on the responses received from the respondents.

In order to analyze the internal consistency of the scale created a reliability analysis was carried out. The main aim of the analysis was to determine the Cronbachs alpha of the scores of the scale. This was done by carrying out a reliability analysis on the similarities opinion scale including all the items that made up the scale. The results of the reliability analysis are provided in the tables below.

From the tables it is clear that the Cronbachs alpha coefficient is equal to 0.656. This value implies that 65.65% of the variability of the composite score made up by the items in the analysis is true score variance (which is internally consistent). Literature recommends that a Cronbachs alpha greater than 0.7 is acceptable. Anything less than 0.7 is considered questionable.

From the item-total statistics table it is evident that if the Similarity Of Religion Of American Culture And Arab Culture item is deleted from the scale the reliability would increase to 0.707 which is acceptable. Therefore, in order to have a reliable scale, the item above will be removed from the questionnaire.

Reliability

Scale: ALL VARIABLES

Reliability Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha Cronbach's Alpha Based on Standardized Items N of Items

.656 .619 6

Item Statistics

Mean Std. Deviation N

SimilarityOfFamilyLifeOfAmericanCultureAndArabCulture 2.80 1.118 25

SimilarityOfBehaviourOfAmericanCulureAndArabCulture 3.00 .866 25

SimilarityOfReligionOfAmericanCultureAndArabCulture 2.84 1.028 25

SimilarityOfMaleFemaleRelationshipInAmericanCultureAndArab 2.92 .862 25

SimilarityOfWomenStatusInAmericaCultureAndArabCulture 2.76 1.128 25

Similarity Opinion Scale 14.32 2.495 25

Inter-Item Correlation Matrix

SimilarityOfFamilyLifeOfAmericanCultureAndArabCulture SimilarityOfBehaviourOfAmericanCulureAndArabCulture SimilarityOfReligionOfAmericanCultureAndArabCulture SimilarityOfMaleFemaleRelationshipInAmericanCultureAndArab

SimilarityOfFamilyLifeOfAmericanCultureAndArabCulture 1.000 .215 .297 .372

SimilarityOfBehaviourOfAmericanCulureAndArabCulture .215 1.000 -.421 .223

SimilarityOfReligionOfAmericanCultureAndArabCulture .297 -.421 1.000 .079

SimilarityOfMaleFemaleRelationshipInAmericanCultureAndArab .372 .223 .079 1.000

SimilarityOfWomenStatusInAmericaCultureAndArabCulture -.106 .341 -.430 .108

Similarity Opionion Scale .726 .501 .232 .671

Inter-Item Correlation Matrix

SimilarityOfWomenStatusInAmericaCultureAndArabCulture Similarity Opinion Scale

SimilarityOfFamilyLifeOfAmericanCultureAndArabCulture -.106 .726

SimilarityOfBehaviourOfAmericanCulureAndArabCulture .341 .501

SimilarityOfReligionOfAmericanCultureAndArabCulture -.430 .232

SimilarityOfMaleFemaleRelationshipInAmericanCultureAndArab .108 .671

SimilarityOfWomenStatusInAmericaCultureAndArabCulture 1.000 .384

Similarity Opionion Scale .384 1.000

Item-Total Statistics

Scale Mean if Item Deleted Scale Variance if Item Deleted Corrected Item-Total Correlation Squared Multiple Correlation

SimilarityOfFamilyLifeOfAmericanCultureAndArabCulture 25.84 18.057 .589 .

SimilarityOfBehaviourOfAmericanCulureAndArabCulture 25.64 21.323 .354 .

SimilarityOfReligionOfAmericanCultureAndArabCulture 25.80 23.583 .027 .

SimilarityOfMaleFemaleRelationshipInAmericanCultureAndArab 25.72 19.877 .558 .

SimilarityOfWomenStatusInAmericaCultureAndArabCulture 25.88 21.860 .168 .

Similarity Opionion Scale 14.32 6.227 1.000 .

Item-Total Statistics

Cronbach's Alpha if Item Deleted

SimilarityOfFamilyLifeOfAmericanCultureAndArabCulture .554

SimilarityOfBehaviourOfAmericanCulureAndArabCulture .632

SimilarityOfReligionOfAmericanCultureAndArabCulture .707

SimilarityOfMaleFemaleRelationshipInAmericanCultureAndArab .586

SimilarityOfWomenStatusInAmericaCultureAndArabCulture .677

Similarity Opinion Scale .232

Scale Statistics

Mean Variance Std. Deviation N of Items

28.64 24.907 4.991 6

References:

Muijs, D. (2010). Doing Quantitative Research in Education with SPSS. London: SAGE Publications.

Pallant, J. (2016). Spss survival manual: A step-by-step guide to data analysis using ibm spss. Crows Nest: Allen & Unwin.

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