Problem Statement and Significance - Free Essay Sample

Published: 2023-09-14
Problem Statement and Significance - Free Essay Sample
Essay type:  Problem solution essays
Categories:  Problem solving Statistics Nutrition Community health
Pages: 6
Wordcount: 1553 words
13 min read

Obesity and overweight in childhood and adolescence are commonly tracked to adulthood. It is related to a few challenges and increases the danger of grimness and mortality sometimes in life. The commonness of obesity and overweight is expanding in both developing and developed nations (Rennie & Jebb, 2005). Obesity or overweight prevalence has multiplied and significantly increased in preschool and elementary school youngsters, respectively. The Middle East and Eastern Europe have been among the developed communities with the highest predominance of youth overweight (Ebbeling, Pawlak, & Ludwig, 2002).

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A high recurrence of potentially weight or overweight in the Middle East was reported in young people living in Qatar and Kuwait (Bener, 2006). The predominance of excess weight and stoutness in children and teenagers is on the rise in many nations that are developing like Iran. In a study conducted across the country, the pervasiveness rate of broad abdominal stoutness in 3-18 years understudies from Iran was 11.89% (where boys were at 13.58% and girls at 10.15%) and 19.12% (where boys were at 20.41% while 17.79% were girls), individually (Esmaili et al., 2015).

Obesity or overweight is a multi-factorial issue and comes from two distinct sources, to be specific, hereditary, and natural factors. In any case, the respective contributing function of genetic vulnerability and ecological factors to obesity increment is still not known. A large number of past examinations have demonstrated that adolescence and childhood obesity and overweight are connected to the apparent familial collection because of the intricate connection between hereditary and ecological factors (Barness, Opitz, & GilbertBarness, 2007).

Various researches have indicated the relationship between BMI (body mass index) of the parents and the weight of the childbirth. Moreover, studies demonstrate the more significant effect of parental BMI on the intensity of the weight gained from a young age to a teenager (Sandovici et al., 2011).

The weight of parents has appeared as a significant indicator of obesity growth in youngsters and teens. A few types of research are accessible concerning the relationship between parental and childhood obesity (Shafaghi et al., 2014). The current examination intends to look at the connection of parental BMI with obesity and overweight in teenagers and children in a countrywide representative test of the Iranian populace.


The research was obtained from the Marquette University Online Library. For this research exercise, the following databases were explored, and peer-reviewed journals and articles retrieved and used to inform this PICO analysis: PubMed, BioMedCentral, SAGE Journals, Europe PMC, ResearchGate, and Google Scholar. The search terms pertinent to the research exercise included "correlation between obese parents and their children," "association between obesity in children and parents," "obesity in children between the ages of 3 and 18 years" and "Inheritability of obesity."

In total, 16 scholarly articles and journals were reviewed, and their content used appropriately within this PICO(T) project. Of the 16 articles used, six articles and studies were separated, and an in-depth review was conducted to inform the paper further. The eight articles were critically appraised and the facts, data, methodologies, and results of the same used in this exercise. The table below is a summary of the author/year of publication, the sample and setting of the study, and the methodology and design of the investigation.

Mashhad City in Iran Multivariable Logistic Regression

The study was conducted in urban and rural parts of 30 provinces between 2011 and 2012 in Iran. Understudies were chosen from elementary, high, and middle schools by multistage, grouping random sampling method (Kelishadi et al., 2015). The separation was conducted according to the schools (elementary, high, and middle schools) and the area of living of the students (urban, countryside). The sum of the children and teenager sample size was determined to be 25000 understudies (48 groups of 10 understudies in every province), and 23043 understudies took part in the survey (Kelishadi et al., 2015).

Prepared medicinal services experts directed the physical assessment under established conventions by utilizing aligned equipment. These experts were chosen from health workers employed in the health framework in every province (one individual in every region, a sum of 30 experts). They went to a three-day informative workshop on the estimation of anthropometric indices as indicated by standard conventions.

Weight was estimated with the person being weighed in light attire, to the closest 0.1 kg. The height while standing was taken to the nearest 0.1 cm without shoes. BMI was determined as mass (Kg) divided by tallness in m2 (square meters). Body mass index groups were characterized as per the World Health Organization (WHO) referral curves for various age and sexual orientation groups. The subjects were delegated underweight (BMI is less than 5%), standard weight (BMI is from 5% to 85%), excess weight (BMI from 85% to 95%), and obese (BMI is more than or equal to 95%.

Guardians were approached to give their height and mass. Parental BMI was determined as below the standard weight (BMI is less than 18.5), average weight (BMI is higher than 18.5 but less than 24.9), overweight (BMI is higher than or equal to 25 to 29.9), and obese (BMI is similar to or greater than 30). Socio-demographic data like occupation and education of parents, living region (urban or rural), age of the person tested, and the number of individuals occupying the house was likewise gathered.

Statistical Analysis

All investigations were directed utilizing the review analysis technique in STATA programming. Continuous and categorical data were introduced as numbers (rates), mean, and the SD (standard deviation). The weight status of the teens and youngsters was broken down as an ordinal result variable. The condition of the parents' weight was arranged into four clusters (underweight, typical weight, overweight, and stout), and was explored as an ordinal reaction variable.

The univariate investigation was utilized to analyze the connection of every independent variable of interest. Pearson's chi-square statistic and Goodman and Kruskal's gamma were used to deciding the relationship between weight status and individuals' attributes. Pearson's connection experiment was utilized to explore the connection between BMI values and continuous variables. A variable univariately connected with the result was included in the preliminary starter model for the result.

Ordinal regression models were utilized to gauge the odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of stoutness by parental weight status, balanced for likely confounders. The samples were tried utilizing a full probability proportion experiment contrasting the fitted area model with a model shifting area boundary. Consequently, separate binomial strategic relapses were run on aggregate dependent valuables. Girls and boys were investigated independently because of sexual orientation contrasts in weight status.

Two arrangements of possible confounders were utilized in different designs. Model 1 was modified for certain qualities of teenagers and children, incorporating gender, weight at birth, age, and living territory. Model 2 was additionally balanced for possible indicators identified with their families like parental occupation and education, kind of school and house, and the family member's size. All the experiments were had two sides, and the essentialness standing was set as 0.05.


Altogether, 23043 understudies (50.8% young men) finished the investigation. The standard deviation and mean for the age of the sample group was 12.55 (3.31) years. In general, 73.4% of the individuals studied were from towns, and 79.4% came from private house families. The mean weight (SD) of parents was 70.9 plus or minus 13.8 kg, and that of the understudies was 42.50kg plus or minus 17.0 kilograms. 9.4% of mothers and 17% of fathers had college degrees. 90.9% of youngsters and teenagers were understudies of state-funded schools. Almost half of the fathers (44.38%) were workers, and 88.3% of the women were housewives. Nearly 50% of families in the experiment possessed individual computers and vehicles. Because the weight status was statistically fundamentally unique among girls and boys, necessary bivariate examinations were done for girls (n=11364) and boys (n=11752) independently.

The commonness of obesity or overweight was 65.6% and 15.1% among the guardians and students. The mean body mass index was18.81kg/m2 plus or minus 4.43kg/m2 and 27.0kg/m2 plus or minus 4.57 kg/m2 for the teenagers/children and the guardians, separately. Generally, 5.0% of youngsters/teenagers were categorized as fat, 10.1% were obese, and underweight was 5.0%. There was a relationship between parental weight and children's weight status (p was less than 0.001 for the two genders). It was discovered that 0.8% of young boys with underweight guardians were obese or overweight. 88.8% of the adolescents and children with overweight guardians and 67.0% of teenagers/youngsters with obese guardians were obese or overweight.

The investigations were defined by sexual orientation. The commonness of obesity was high among guardians. In models 1-2, youth and childhood obesity were mainly connected with parental obesity in the two genders, in the wake of changing for confounders. Overweight in parents expanded the chances of obesity among teenagers and youngsters, and solid affiliations were found among obese and overweight guardians and the mass of their posterity (p was less than 0.05).

Boys were 2.79 times bound to be fat if their parents were heftily contrasted with boys with typical weight guardians. Correspondingly, girls who had overweight guardians were bound to be obese than their companions who had ordinary weight guardians. Boys with overweight guardians were 1.7 likelier to be overweight than their partners with regular-weight guardians. Similarly, girls whose parents were overweight were progressively overweight contrasted with those with ordinary-weight guardians.

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