Complete acclimatization of heat requires two weeks estimated period though different body systems adapt at varying rates under heat exposure. The adaptations that occur within first five days of training include reduced heartbeat rate, habituation of nervous system, increased plasma volume, and improved cardiovascular control function. The other adaptation is the reduction in blood flow to the skin for a long time that helps to increase the central blood amount. Those that occur in the later days of training included an increase in oxygen consumption, reduced core temperature of the body and increased the nervous activity of the sympathetic system. Autonomic habituation of the nervous system helps to redirect the cardiac output back to active muscles and capillary beds of the skin. The increased plasma volume occurs due to plasma protein increase and retention of sodium chloride. The changes are accompanied by decreased rate of heartbeat up to twenty percent.
The reduced cardiovascular strain leads to a small ratings of exertion that relates proportionally to the cardiorespiratory stress and also occur in the initial stages of exercise. The expansion of plasma volume is temporary, and it generally fades off after the eighth day of training. It is commonly replaced by long-lasting blood flow reduction of the skin. Body temperature regulation during heat exercise is very critical due to the high lethal hyperthermia potential. After the eighth day of thermoregulatory exercise adaptations follow. The thermoregulatory changes include sweat rate increase, the onset of early sweat production and cardiovascular adjustments. The nature of adaptations that occur during the dry heat and humid heat exposures are different. It leads to a greater sweat rate than in dry, hot training condition. How anabolic steroids work, their side effects, their legal and ethical implications.
The steroid drugs refer to performance drugs that are hormone-based. Their sole purpose is to increase the protein synthesis rate in the body cells. They enhance the athletes performance through two unique processes. The first one is the big muscle formation through the increased protein synthesis. The second is the blocking of the cortisol tissue muscle; this reduces the rate of breaking down of existing muscles.
There are some health consequences of using anabolic steroid drugs. The significant impact is the disruption of hormonal systems. The abuse of steroid drugs leads to disruption of hormone production in the body and thus leading to both irreversible and reversible body changes. The changes that are reversible include shrinking of the testicles typically referred to as testicular atrophy and decreased sperm production. The irreversible ones are the development of the breast in men that is gynecomastia and baldness pattern in males. In women, the drugs cause masculinization. The voice usually deepens, and the victims clitoris enlarges while the skin turns to coarse. There may also be increased body hair growth with lose scalp and with continued use of the drugs, most of these changes becomes irreversible. Musculoskeletal systems are the increased levels of sex hormones such as testosterone usually trigger spurt growth, a process that occurs during puberty and adolescence period. At the same time, such hormones also signal the stop of the spurt growth at extreme levels. Therefore, when an adolescent consumes the drugs, the high standard of the drug in the system may signal the premature stop in bone growth. Cardiovascular system- the abuse of anabolic steroids has associations with cardiovascular diseases. The diseases include stroke and heart attack and affect even those athletes who are below thirty years of age. They contribute to the development of the cardiovascular diseases partially by bringing change in the lipoprotein level that usually carry cholesterol within the blood. In particular, oral steroids led increased low-density lipoprotein levels and decreased high-density lipoprotein levels. The high standard of the low-density lipoproteins and the low levels of high-density lipoproteins leads to increased atherosclerosis risk. This refers to the situation where the fatty substances get deposited in the artery vessels leading to disrupted blood flow. It prevents the sufficient circulation of the blood to the heart that leads to heart attack. At the same time, it prevents blood from reaching the brain that causes a stroke. The steroid drugs also lead to increased risk of blood clots in the blood vessels. This disrupts the flow of blood and damage heart muscles thus blood is pumped inefficiently. Liver- the abuse of steroids have associations with tumors of the liver and a condition known as peliosis hepatis. This is a condition in which there are formations of blood-filled cysts within the liver organ. Internal bleeding may result from the rapture of the cyst, and the tumors formed within the liver. Infections- many of those who abuse the steroid drugs use nonsterile needles or sometimes even share the injection needles with their fellows. Additionally, some of the steroids are illegally manufactured under conditions that are nonsterile. These factors predispose the steroid abusers to life-threatening infections like HIV. The abusers at the same time may develop endocarditis. This is an infection that leads to inflammation of the hearts inner lining. This bacterial formation also leads to the infliction of a lot of pain and formation of an abscess at the points of injection. Teens are usually at higher risk of steroid damages as compared to adults since the puberty can be offset leading to stunted body growth of the teen.
To understand the surrounding legal situation of steroids, the victim has to give considerations to how the drug would be used. Steroids are actually not a hundred percent illegal. This is because the drugs are frequently used for medication purposes and treatment of other health related issues. However, they were banned due to the health risks mentioned above. The use of these drugs is illegal in sports since all sports leagues do not permit their use.
Use of steroids has ethical effects. The use of steroid drugs creates an unfair ground of play to the other participants. The society gives a lot of considerations because the use of the drug acts as a cheating form by creating an unfair form of advantage to the users. This leads to the breaking of social contrast agreed to by the athletes. Even if the drugs were safe to use, the selective use by other athletes would still result in cheating unless all the athlete were to be allowed to use the drugs at the same rate and quantity.
A week long diet for distance runner
The diet used by long runners one week to their competition typically consists of vast amounts of carbohydrates and very minimal amounts of fats. The primary goal of consuming large carbohydrate amounts is to help in super loading the muscles with a lot of glycogen and at the same time enable the athlete to maintain a consistently high exercise intensity for an extended time period. The carbohydrate loading leads to the increased glycogen quantity by over two hundred percent thus allowing the delay of fatigue by the athlete and maintained intensity exercise for longer hours. Protein consumptions should be moderated. The runner should consume water that amounts to a gallon of volume to ensure that he/she is hydrated properly. The athlete should eat at least five different types of fruits in a single day. The fruits have to be those rich in glucose content and citrus fruits. To avoid stomach upsets, the athlete should use liquid foods, reduce fiber intake and reduced fat. For instance, the athlete should have some toast plus jam lacking butter, use of milk with low-fat content and avoid fried meal during breakfasts.
Stretch shortening cycle and its relation to exercise
Stretch shortening cycle refers to an eccentric contraction that is followed by concentric contraction. The concentric phase does a lot of work since it is powerful. The period is very critical in speed improvement, explosiveness, and strengths. The science that governs this phenomenon is very straightforward. The stretch shortening cycle is also referred to as plyometric. The athlete muscles first undergo the eccentric action or, in other words, extending, then through the isometric action, that is static, and then to a concentric action, the shortening. The main goal, therefore, is the quick performance of the sequence to ensure an enhanced action than when no pre-stretch action was done. The fast muscle is stretching leads to stretch reflex and to an extent elastic energy that produces extremely powerful recoil. The recoil is produced in a correct manner then followed by contraction. This creates a powerful output that places the outstanding overload on the muscle of interest. It leads to increased power and strength of the athlete. The stretch shortening cycle as such acts as a booster by allowing less energy to be used in doing more work.
SECTION 4: VIDEO
Hi ladies and gentlemen I am (name) from Dalman training sports facility. Today Steve McGarret, who is an athlete from the University of California is going to receive training from us. McGarret is a player of the basketball at the University and plays the position of the point guard. The role of the point guard is to run the plays on the offense by passing the ball in the sense that everyone can get good shot chances. Meanwhile as a defense the central role you play is to interrupt the lanes of passing and at the same time stop fast break plays by acting as the primary defender.
To fulfill these roles, the athletes have to be so swift and in proper body condition. Todays layout of training is set to begin with some warm-up followed by footwork agility. We will then close with cool-down exercises.
The warm-up exercises include the motion that involves running in the training place. Move at your highest pace by bringing up your knees to hip height and pumping the arms for a minute duration. Stretching- the first being hamstring stretching. The hamstrings refer to the muscles found in the upper legs. To do that, you have to sit directly on the training floor and tightly cross your legs. Then straighten slowly your left leg while ensuring your toes points up. Then lean in a forward manner, away from the hips and continue till you feel hamstring stretch. Hold the stretch position for at least thirty seconds. Switch the legs and repeat the whole procedure. Back stretches- you should lie on the back while placing your feet flat and resting on the training ground. Hold the right sided leg below your knee and raise it slowly towards the chest. During this time ensure your head remains down and the legs as straight as you can manage. Hold the position for a duration of thirty seconds and then switch legs. Repeat the whole procedure with each leg for around three times. Shoulder stretching- you should stand straight then place the left hand on the right shoulder. Position your right arm on the left elbow. Pull the elbow in the direction of your right shoulder. This will make you feel the stretching of your left shoulder. Hold the position for thirty seconds. Reverse the whole procedure and repeat it around three times. Arm stretching- you should loosen up the shoulders and swirl the hands in tight circles. Increase the size of the circles gradually until you achieve a ring that proceeds from the ceiling to the floor. Continue for thirty seconds and reverse the direction.
The Agility exercises include; following the warm-up exercises is the agility exercises that include drills done using agility ladder. Exercise of the high knee- focus on ke...
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