Pharmacology Essay Example

Published: 2022-03-25 03:59:49
Pharmacology Essay Example
Type of paper:  Report
Categories: Pharmacology
Pages: 3
Wordcount: 759 words
7 min read

Response to Q.1.

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Trinder's reagent contains ferric ions. When the reagent is mixed with the specimen, the ferrous three ions combine with salicylate ions to form a purple compound (Ciejka et al., 2011). If the latter is not available, the contents remain yellow- which is the color of the reagent. Tube 4 and 5 are negative and positive control respectively. Therefore, yellow means no salicylate ions and purple means presence of the ions. Tube 1 and 2 are yellow hence no salicylate in the body fluids. However, this cannot be used to conclude that there is no aspirin ingestion as it is rapidly absorbed from the stomach and intestine by passive diffusion. Tube 3 is pink color which could be the start of an array of color change as the half-life of aspirin is 2 hours. Samples were collected 1 hour after reported ingestion perhaps the excretion of unmetabolised salicylate in urine has begun.

Table 1. Results for qualitative tests

Tube Content Color change

1 well mixed stomach contents Cloudy Yellow

2 Hydrolyzed stomach contents Partial Cloudy Yellow

3 Urine Light Pink

4 negative control Yellow

5 positive control Purple

Response to Q.2.

The serum is the portion left after blood clots. It consists of all the proteins not used in the coagulation pathway such as electrolytes, antibodies, antigens, hormones and any exogenous substances including drugs. Urine, on the other hand, is a by-product that contains urea, sodium, potassium, creatinine, dissolved ions, organic and inorganic compounds. However, urine does not contain proteins, unlike serum. Trinder's reagent forms precipitate with proteins. Dissolved proteins are found in abundance in serum, but are not typically found in the urine. Presence of proteinuria signifies kidney pathology such as nephrotic syndrome.

Response to Q.3.

Response to Q.4b.

The class mean result was 278.79ug/l whereas my salicylate concentration in the unknown sample was 324ug/l. The class Standard Deviation (SD) was 74.60 - which is high. This implies that many students have answers far from the mean hence the high SD.

Response to Q.5.

The therapeutic range of salicylate is 15-30 mg/dl (Waseem, 2017). The patient's salicylates level are within the therapeutic range.

Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a persistent inflammatory arthritis. It is an autoimmune disease and is commoner in females. It is characterized by remissions and exacerbations. Its typical presentation is pain, joint swelling, and stiffness (Colledge, Walker, and Ralston, 2011, pg. 1088). It is a multisystem disease and because of the pain patients typically take NSAIDs such as aspirin. The patient might have taken an aspirin overdose as he or she is trying to reduce the pain associated with RA.

Response to Q.6.

Aspirin -acetylsalicylic acid- is an NSAID that has anti-inflammatory, antipyretic, and analgesic effects. Its actions are due to both the acetyl and the salicylate portions of the intact molecule as well as by the active salicylate metabolite. In addition, it also has antiplatelet activity and hence its use in people with a previous history of myocardial infarctions or those at risk of strokes to reduce chances of forming blood clots.

Aspirin irreversibly acetylates both cyclooxygenase (COX) 1 and 2 inhibiting their function. This reduces the production of thromboxane A2 and prostaglandins from arachidonic acid peripherally (Katzung, Masters, and Trevor, 2004, pg. 624). Reduction of the former reduces platelet aggregation. Prostaglandins normally reset the hypothalamus upper-temperature limit causing hotness of body, stimulate immune cells to cause inflammation and sensitizes nerve to pain consequently. Therefore, by inhibiting of prostaglandins, aspirin causes fever, inflammation, and pain relief.

Centrally, aspirin produces analgesic action in the hypothalamus. It also acts on the hypothalamus to produce antipyresis by increasing heat dissipation by causing vasodilation and increased peripheral blood flow.


Ciejka, M., Nguyen, K., Bluth, M.H. and Dubey, E., 2016. Drug toxicities of common analgesic Medications in the emergency department. Clinics in laboratory medicine, 36(4).

Colledge, N.R., Walker, B.R., Ralston, S.H. and Principles, D.S., 2011. Practice of Medicine. Respiratory Disease, 21st Edition, Churchill Livinstone Elsevier, 2(011).

Katzung, B.G., Masters, S.B. and Trevor, A.J. eds., 2004. Basic & clinical pharmacology.

Waseem, M. 2017. Salicylate Toxicity Workup.

Student initials Mean Salicylate estimate (g/ml)

1 360

2 267

3 330

4 111

5 325

6 282

7 134

8 270

9 410

10 237

11 185

12 365

13 318

14 290

15 260

16 250

17 286

18 225

19 325

20 330

21 353

22 275

23 250

24 235

25 222

26 262

27 370

28 293

29 375

30 370

31 308

32 295

33 218

34 93

MEAN 278.79


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