|Type of paper:
|Human resources Organizational behavior Leadership management
Human resource managers get the work completed through people. They usually allocate resources, give direction to others, and make vital decisions regarding the achievement of organizational goals. Human resource managers are responsible for all issues concerning the workforce in an organization. It is very crucial nowadays for managers to consider the dynamic that is realized in organizational behavior (Venieris, Naoum, and Vlismas, 2015). Globalization is one of the key factors that are contributing to changes that are experienced in organizational behaviour. This aspect led to the establishment of challenges and opportunity to human resource managers on how they will use organizational behaviour (Wehn and Montalvo, 2018). Organizational behaviour clinches more on the ways of enhancing productivity, decreasing absenteeism, change workplace behaviour, promote organization communal interaction, and enhance job satisfaction. What workers do in an organization and how they behave usually affect the performance of an organization. The paper will establish various aspects of organizational behaviour and human resource and their roles in management.
Concept of the Psychological Contract.
The psychological contract is the term that was developed by organizational academician Denise Rousseau. The contract represents the mutual responsibility between the employer and employees. It usually defines the realism of the task to be done. Psychological contract contravenes the formal contract of employment, which usually defines key responsibility and duties for an employee. The term psychological contract becomes effective in 1960, where it was first introduced by Argyris (Karagonlar, Eisenberger, Aselage, 2016). At this time, the foremen realized that the employees tend to perform well when they were under minimum supervision. The employees agreed on the relationship between them and their leaders to be hypothesized. Documentation of this relationship was later termed as psychological work contract (Wellin, 2016). In this case, the employees agreed to portray high performance if the foremen assure them that they will respect their informal culture. Their informal culture entails to be minimum supervised, have enough time to make adequate wages, and have job security. The psychological contract is, therefore defined as an affiliation between the employees and employers in the situation of having undocumented mutual expectation among the contracting parties (Solinger, Hofmans, Bal & Jansen, 2016).
The psychological contract is characterized by qualities such as respect, trust, compassion, and goals. The psychological contract is formulated in the notion of belief concerning the exchange consent that arises in a variety of context which is not always between the employers and the employee (Wang, Yang, & Luo, 2017). However, it has a significant function in defining workplace association between the worker and their leaders. With this regard, the psychological contract is an important agreement that illustrates the relationship between the employer and employee. The psychological contract usually creates a vicious circle in some situations (Bordia, Restubog, Bordia & Tang, 2017). Many scholars define a psychological contract as an informal agreement between an individual with another party. The psychological contract is usually an example of a social relationship. There is a close relationship between the psychological contract and social exchange theory since the relationship between the parties involved is characterized in terms of the cost benefits (Lub, Bal, Blomme & Schalk, 2016). The consensus illustrates the psychological contract as implicit, promissory, and mutual depending on expectation. The psychological contract can be affected by many issues such as the conflicting morals and standards among the employees and employers. The contract may also be affected by external forces such as equity theory and nudge theory (Callea, Urbini, Ingusci & Chirumbolo, 2016).
The psychological contract was first defined by Argyris in 1960. Since then, theory becomes more popular on researches that were done on the subject. When the study of industrial relation was developed, the theory becomes more complex, since the employees performed well in certain job specification (Alcover, Rico, Turnley & Bolino, 2017). Theory X and Y of McGregor form the basis of the formation of the psychological contract. The work of Denise M. Rousseau later gives detailed perspectives of the psychological contract. However, Sandra L. Robinson revealed that the employees are periodically identified to breach the psychological contract, which, in turn, affects their productivity and retention (Cassar & Buttigieg, 2015).
Psychological contract formation is termed as the process is where employee and employer develop mutual correlation with one another. The formation of psychological contract formation starts before employment and develops in the course of employment. The contract is much effective if it is agreed voluntarily. The contract is also useful in illustrating the benefit that an employee is expecting to receive from their employment (Erkutlu & Chafra, 2016). There are two types of the psychological contract, depending on the nature of their formation. These types include transactional psychological contract and the relational psychological contract. The transactional psychological contract has a focal point on intrinsic qualities of an employee. Rational psychological contract focus correlation of a firm and point of social exchange (Bankins, 2015). Psychological contract formation depends on various factors which are pre-employment, recruitment, early socialization, later experience and evaluation.
Principles of Scientific Management
Management has a remarkable effect on an organization. Management is defined as the set of activities such as planning, decision making, and control which aim at the realization of organizational goals and objectives. The other definition of management defines management as the process of manipulating and controlling the environment where a group or individuals are working. Society mainly relies majorly rely on the team effort and as a result, the manager becomes crucial in managing dynamics that realized in an organization (Waring, 2016). Theory of management becomes important on how the manager manages dynamics in an organization. The most popular theory is Frederick Taylor's Scientific Management theory. Taylor initiated the era of modern management. The scientific management principle they are easier to recognize in the modern workplace (Taylor, 2015). Scientific management has four principles. The first principle is the rule of thumb (Holmes, 2016). . This is simple habit or the common sense that the workers in an organization need to have. The rule determines the most effective way necessary to perform a given task. . The second principle indicates that work should be assigned to an employer's on bases of their competence (Wilkinson et al 2016). The third principle of the management indicates that managers should monitor and provide instruction to their employers. It also state that supervision is a fundamental endeavour to ensure that work have been done efficiently (Chang, 2016). . The forth principle indicate that work should be allocate to both the employers and the employees. This means that when the managers are spending their time planning and training workers are busy performing the task they have been assigned.
The first principle is relevant to the modern work place since the managers need to break job into personal task and find out which task do not reflect the end product. The managers should give the task to each department in an organization and give employees time to execute such task (McCrindle et al. 2017). For instance, if the employees find out they are wasting a lot of time doing certain task they have to find out the most effective way that will reduce the time wasted. The second principle of the management is still relevant even in the contemporary society (Liu, Pacitti, Valduriez & Mattoso, 2015). Managers in an organisation they are responsible in selecting the right individual for a specific task. They should always make sure that they assign competent employees to do a specific task. This is because when a job match the skills of an employee they tend to do such task efficiently hence ending up with better result (Garcia-Holgado, Garcia-Penalvo, & Rodriguez-Conde, 2015). The third principle is very important in the work place today. Training of the employees is an ongoing process in an organization training usually offer employees with relevant skills that relevant in execution of a specific task. Training sharpens the mind of employees leading to high output. The last principle is relevant in job allocation. Managers are not supposed to be authoritative they are supposed to possess good leadership skills. When workers are given ample time to perform task by them self they end up performing better than when they are supervised.
Role of Formal and Informal Groups in the Workplace.
Role of Formal Groups
A group in a workplace is usually regarded as being formal when it is designed to attain an organizational task or goal. Formal groups are established through formal authority for a particular defined role. The formal groups in the workplace have the purpose of taking responsibility as a functional group or command group. A formal group is usually relatively permanent as it is made up of managers as well as their subordinates who gather regularly to hold discussions of the specific and general ideas to enhance service or product. The formal groups are created consciously and deliberately in directing the efforts of the group members, especially the workers towards the attainment of the organizational goals (Waldstrom, 2001). In the workplace, formal groups are mainly created to attain the purpose of capitalizing the expertise of the individuals in the group towards accomplishing the available complex tasks. The formal groups in the workplace have the role of making use of synergy. The legal groups have the advantage of having collective efforts by the group members, which is found to yield better outcomes than a person working separately. The formal groups have the role of facilitating proper decision making. By having several individuals in a given group, the conflicting thoughts and ideas usually arise which could be used in the formulation of a better decision (Mullins, 2007). The formal groups assume the role of helping others in the group whereby they can learn about new skills as well as understanding the details of the environment of an organization. The formal groups are also assigned with the role of satisfying the personal requirements of social affiliations.
Role of Informal Groups
Informal groups are usually created by the members of an organization who emerge naturally intending to respond to common interests of the organization. The informal groups are typically created spontaneously by having no given formal designation as well as with similar benefits like self-defence, social interaction, and work help (Diefenbach & Sillince, 2011). The informal groups have the role of bringing together workers in an organization. The connections between the members of the informal groups are substantial and create a sense of togetherness and belonging. The togetherness that is created by the informal groups has a considerable influence on productivity as well as job satisfaction.
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