Chapter 2 - Literature Review
Literature review dependent on the assessments and studies correlated to the topic of the research will be discussed in this chapter. This literature review will examine the correlation between use of music and songs in second language learning and the strategy or method applied. The aspects that will be discussed in this chapter include: theoretical background, model, previous research carried out about the topic, and theoretical framework.
Current Research in English Language Teaching
2.1 Theoretical Background
This study adopts the Dual Coding theory which was previously suggested by Allan (1971) as a research theory. Music can either be presented in form of audio only or visual and audio. The Dual Coding theory has sparked enormous debates and experimental research in the field of psychology. It was a key factor in fabricating the reemergence of scientific and philosophical curiosity in visual and audio (Ries, 2016). It has been referred to as one of the most effective theories of cognition in the 20th century (Teresa, 2016). It has been dominantly adopted to explain various psychological issues (Ries, 2016).
Dual Coding theory states that humans decipher information in two methods:
i) Imagery encoding transforms information into imagery and allows the ability to see.
ii) Linguistic encoding transforms information into oral significant knowledge.
The role of visuals is highly backed by the dual coding theory which states that knowledge is deciphered visually or orally (Allan, 1990).
Dual Coding Theory
Dual coding theory, theoretically ascertains that visuals and words initiate the codifying procedure in a preservative method. When knowledge is deciphered in both verbal and visual codes, it increases the chances of being retrieved from the memory where it is stored. Mental processing is activated differently by visuals and words as assumed by Dual Coding theory. When being double coded, visuals are better memorized than words. Dual coding theory has been widely adopted by text book publishers too, and also computer generated statistics or animations might use it as their guidance in research (Martin, 2016).
The reviews stated by Allan above is what will be experimented and proven in this study-using music which have both visual and audio in teaching and learning English language. The different cultural backgrounds, values and traditions of the students hinder the teaching of English lessons. Some might be due to fear of English, ignorance or just low self confidence. Such negative values that hamper the learning process of English are expected to be reduced or fully abolished by the use of music in English lessons.
If all these barriers were turned into visual form, the challenges discussed earlier on in the paper would be solved. The intonation, rhythm, background of the visual music, the attire used in them would depict the culture of English language to the students. The students will be attached to the language emotionally since they will feel that they are connecting with it. It will act as a bridge to link the learners to the English community, civilization and society and their history. Such values will help the students appreciate English.
There are some learners who have indicated the positive effect demonstrated in the Dual Coding theory. For instance, Beak (1998) carried out a study to determine the average speed of memorizing by learners and he found that a lesson where an educator used visual to teach, the students scored higher on a post test than lessons which had written texts only. Rieber (1990) carried out a study that indicated visual images were superior to written texts. Other information that could not be explained by the teacher were individually understood and comprehended by the students (Rieber, 1990).
Music can be either visual and audio or audio only. The table below will indicate the difference between auditory-sequential learners and visual-spatial learners.
Optic-Spatial Learners Acoustic-Sequential Learners
Must visualize in order to spell the words Can spell words just by listening to them
Prefer to learn wholly Prefer learning through step by step
Understands visuals better Understands details better
Learns all the concepts at once in large chunks
of information in intuitive leaps Learns by trying and making mistakes
Creates ideas better Analysis ideas better, take in isolated facts in small steps
Learn better by visualizing relationships Learn better by memorizing
Learn visuals better than sounds Learn sounds easily
Remember well from permanent memory Utilize short term memory better
Create unusual solutions to problems Convergent , generate expected responses
Create their own strategy of organization Understands the culture’s methods of well organization
Evaluates visual information and maps well Follow verbal instructions better
Solve problem intuitively Shows components of problem solution easily
Understands ideas easily, dislikes drill and repetition Requires repetition to enhance and accelerate learning
Learn well through immersion Learn well through structure in classes
Figure 2.1.1: Difference between the visual-spatial learners and auditory-sequential learners (Munro, 2006).
Krashen's Monitor Model
Language teaching was transformed by Stephen Krashen who was a psychologist 25 years ago. His model was accepted and embraced in different fields after he published several books. He explained the dual processes of teaching and learning language. He also established the language teaching approach. Krashen monitor model derived five hypotheses (Krashen,1983):
I) The learning Hypothesis
It claims that a second language is learnt through two ways. The first one is through acquisition, which happens subconsciously. The second is learning, whereby it requires to be conscious creation through education.
II) The Natural Order Hypothesis
In this hypothesis Krashen states that educators should not teach language by following an ordered pattern. The table below will show the model of natural order from top to bottom.
-ing advanced multiple Copula
Systematic Past 3rd Singular acquisitive
Figure 2.3.1: Model of Natural Order (Brown, 1973)
III) The Monitor Hypothesis
This hypothesis explains the extant correction between language learning and acquisition of a language. By learning a student becomes good at monitoring what is being taught while acquisition helps a student improve on fluency in a language. Krashen explains three challenges in monitoring.
a) Allocating less time.
b) Lack of concentration on what is correct.
c) Lack of formal rules acknowledgement.
IV) The Input Hypothesis
This hypothesis explains the three characteristics of an ideal language which its input can be comprehended:
a) The concentration is more on the definition than how it is communicated.
b) When a learner understands a language enough, speaking it is automatic
c) The greatest input is not arranged grammatically.
The table below will show the seqeunce of input hypothesis model from top to bottom.
Language Acquisition Device (LAD)
Figure 2.3.2: The Input Hypothesis model (Krashen, 1982).
V) The Affective Hypothesis
Self-confidence, low anxiety, and high motivation are important in learning a language. The conception behind this is having an input which is comprehensible. Krashen claims that the common variable in all of these hypotheses comprehensible input. Lessons should have the following characteristics while teaching language:
a) The input should be understandable, that is, they should be important and interesting to the learner.
b) Teachers should put up with any errors a student makes in the early stages since speech will emerge automatically.
c) Sequencing of grammar is not important.
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