Master of Pharmacy (MPharm).

Published: 2019-08-29 08:00:00
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Master of Pharmacy, MPharm, is the only available degree that educationists recommend towards as the first step when a person plans to become a pharmacist in his career. Upon completion of the degree, one is required to undergo a pre-registration training in order to qualify as a practicing and registered pharmacist. The Master of Pharmacy is an undergraduate program that takes four years.

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Reasons for degree choice:

My interest in science related to medicine

Pharmacy based on supplying, discovering, and manufacturing medicines

Making medicines and discovering drugs for new diseases and treatments

Knowing the medicines effects on the body

Studying pharmacy associated with chemistry and biology, in which I have strengths as I have previously studied them in depth

The fact that the degree is recognized by other member states of the European Union, the course would help me to have a broad field of work and increase my scope of assisting the populations.

The course improves the contacts between the patients and the medics through hospital visits and patient interviews and this improves on the effectiveness of the medics and helps them to acquire relevant skills for the profession.

Career options:

Working in a hospital pharmacy either for the state or private company.

Drug development industry

University-based research

Open a pharmacy

Being a specialist in pharmacology, clinical pharmacology, or drug development

Working in other science-based careers

Part B

The other university name:

Master of Pharmacy, MPharm, at the University of Bath.

Main similarities

The modules are similar such as the fundamentals of pharmacy, community pharmacy, healthcare, making medicines and drug.

The standardization of the curriculum is the same making it easier to providing a standardized healthcare for the patients.

The research projects also point towards the same goal which is to identify solutions to the modern day diseases with the aim of improving the quality of life in the society.

The course outline are the same as they include the curriculum that helps the students to acquire nursing skills and this proves to be great advantage in equipping them students with knowledge and skills on how to deal with the modern day health challenges.

Time in lectures, seminars, and independent study are quiet similar for both universities.

The program is tailored for the course and it is designed to integrate teaching, learning and understanding of the pharmaceutical science within the context of pharmaceutical practice.

The course provides the students with the opportunity to become confident practitioners and competent professionals that can engage in the development of lifelong educational development.

There are no optional units in year 1 and 2 of the course and which ensures that the students have a strong foundation for their subsequent years in the course.

The course involves practical application of the knowledge acquired through making hospital visits and patient interviews thereby helping in the development of the society.

Lectures and seminars around 29% in both universities to enable the students acquire practical skills in medicine and adapt to the trending challenges in the society.

Independent study around 70% which provides a platform for the students to engage in research works and engage in knowledge acquisition.

Main differences

Course content:

Optional units in year 3 and 4 in University of Bath, whereas at LJMU all the units are core.

Statistics:

Time in placement

LJMU: 1% in first and second years, 2% in third and four years

Bath: 10% in third year

Assessment in coursework

LJMU: written exams 40%, coursework around 48%, and practical exams around 12%

University of Bath:

Year 1 and 2: written exams around 88%, coursework around 10%, and practical exams 2%

Year 3: written exams 72%, coursework 26%, and practical exams 2%

Year 4: written exams 38%, coursework 62%

Information about an academics profile:

Dr Elsie Gaskell

She studied Applied Microbiology at LJMU

Elsie completed her PhD in 2006. This proves her competence in the field and as lecturer who has the ability to carry out her duties in disseminating knowledge to the students.

She worked at Pfizer in Sandwich

She has been a member of School of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences since 2006

Elsie is a member of the Formulation and Drug Development (FDD) research group

Her research interests remain in drug action and delivery.

The broad field experience that she has is of great importance as it would help her to equip student with contemporary skills in the field of medicine.

Elsies highlighted publications:

Antimicrobial clay-based materials for wound care

Formulation and antibacterial profiles of clay-ciprofloxacin composites

Therapeutics and Human Physiology

Part C

First year module:

Integrated Foundation of Pharmacy

Topic:

Pain and the peripheral nervous system

- The title:

Analyze the types of painkillers, specifically paracetamol and ibuprofen, and compare their side effects.

The argument:

There are various types of painkillers and their effectiveness differ in equal proportions. This is due to the fact that diseases and disease-causing organisms mutate and this calls for the society to carry out research and develop drugs that can combat the developing diseases in the society. In this manner, it is of great importance to identify the various types of painkillers and the suitability of the painkillers for trhe different types of diseases. Some of the common painkillers include paracetamol, ibuprofen, aspirin, codeine, amitriptyline and gabapentin and morphine.

Inroduction:

Thesis statement

Examination of the various types of painkillers would help in understanding the activities of the painkillers evaluating the effectiveness and their suitability for different types of diseases.

Main points:

- General ideas about the types of painkillers. The painkillers work by eliminating the disease-causing micro-organisms in the human body. This takes place by the action of engulfing, attacking or attenuating the micro-organisms to reduce pains in the human body.

- General aspects about paracetamol and ibuprofen

Main body:

Paragraph 1

Types of painkillers: The types of painkillers are the strong and the weak opioids. The strong opioids are such as tramadol, buprenorphine, methadone, diamorphine, fentanyl, morphine, hydromorphone and pethidine. The weak opioids are such as codeine and dihydrocodeine

Efficiency: The efficiency is tested on the effectiveness of the drugs to relieve pain and this depends on the time limit within which the drugs relieve pain

Dangers: Overdose of the painkillers would lead to death

Side effects: The side effects are such as constipation, vomiting, nausea, dizziness, addiction, confusion, unconsciousness and respiratory depression.

Paragraph 2

Paracetamol

The purpose of using it

The recommended use and dosage

Possible danger of overdose; liver damage

Interaction with other medicines; it may reduce other medicines effect, or other medicines reduce it is effect (NHS, 2014)

There are various types of painkillers in the society which help in relieving pain and discomfort in the human body. One of the commonly used painkillers is Paracetamol. This type of painkiller is available in caplets, tablets and in syrups as appropriate for the children. It is mostly used in the treatment of headaches, non-nerve pains and on the occasions when there are symptoms of flu or cold. The drug should be used as prescribed by a competent medic in order to avoid the side effects because in the event in small overdoses, the drug can cause serious problems.

Paragraph 3

Ibuprofen

The purpose of using it

The recommended use and dosage

Possible danger of overdose; epigastric pain

Interaction with other medicines such as aspirin

The second painkiller that finds much use in the modern society is Ibuprofen and it is under a group of medicines NSAIDs or the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. The drugs are mostly used to treat pain and inflammation but they should not be taken for long periods of time unless a professional medic advises so. On some occasions, there are side effects such as bleeding, stomach upsets, kidney and heart problems.

Other drugs that are in the same category as ibuprofen and serve the same way as painkillers are naproxen and diclofenac, which are recommended for the cases of injury or in the treatment of arthritis. Additionally, Aspirin is another painkiller that and a type of NSAID which is mostly recommended for the treatment of headaches, period pains and toothache. However, the drug should not be given to people that are under the age of 16 years.

Codeine is the fourth painkiller that has found growing attention in the society and this is due to the fact that it is mostly used in combination with paracetamol in a single medicine as a tablet or can be dissolved in water. The combination of low-dose codeine and paracetamol is known as co-codamol which is mostly available in pahamacies as over-the-counter drugs. However, higher doses of the drug are available on prescription from a competent medical professional. However, the drugs that contain codeine should not be given to the children who are under the age of 2 years of age and can only be given to the children over 12 years only for a short term in the cases of moderate pain. It is recommended that the drug should be use only on the occasions when the common painkillers such as paracetamol or ibuprofen, this is because codeine painkillers can lead to dependency.

Finally, the two common painkillers in the society are amitriptyline and gabapentin and morphine. Amitriptyline and gabapentin finds much use on the occasions where pains are caused by nerve or in the sensitivities that are linked to the nerve problems such as shingles or neuropathy. Additionally, the drug is also used in the treatment of epilepsy and depression because amitriptyline is very effective in treating depression while gabapentin is used to treat epilepsy which also works well for the treatment of nerve pains. Morphine on the other hand works as treats similarly well as other drugs such as fentanyl, oxycodone and buprenorphine, which are strong painkillers as prescribed by GPS and other pain specialists.

Conclusion

Painkillers are of great importance to the modern society as they help in relieving pain in the bodies of individual and improving the health of the society. There should be increased research works to help in the development of new painkillers that would help in the combating the new types of diseases.

Bibliography

Best painkillers for your pain. (2015). [online] WebMD Boots. Available at: http://www.webmd.boots.com/pain-management/guide/which-painkillers-work-best [Accessed 6 Mar. 2016].

Hughes, J. (2008). Pain management. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone/Elsevier.

Mann, E. and Carr, E. (2006). Pain management. Oxford: Blackwell Pub.

Painkillers, Ibuprofen - NHS Choices. (2014). [online] Nhs.uk. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Painkillers-ibuprofen/Pages/Introduction.aspx [Accessed 7 Mar. 2016].

Painkillers, Paracetamol - NHS Choices. (2014). [online] Nhs.uk. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/conditions/Painkillers-paracetamol/Pages/Introduction.aspx [Accessed 7 Mar. 2016].

Which painkiller? - Live Well - NHS Choices. (2016). [online] Nhs.uk. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/Livewell/Pain/Pages/Whichpainkiller.aspx [Accessed 6 Mar. 2016].

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Master of Pharmacy (MPharm).. (2019, Aug 29). Retrieved from https://speedypaper.com/essays/master-of-pharmacy-mpharm

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