Paper Example: Kotters, Rogers, and Lewin Change Models

Published: 2023-05-02
Paper Example: Kotters, Rogers, and Lewin Change Models
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Strategic management Business strategy Sustainable development
Pages: 5
Wordcount: 1102 words
10 min read

Over the past years, different participants had to ensure that their businesses are effectively undertaking various measures in their operations. Hence at this point, there was an essential requirement by the company to ensure that there are adequately ensuring that they acquire and adapt to a continually changing environment for their progress in the market. Adaption measure was also to ensure that those businesses could appropriately be playing a part in the environmental changes and ensure a proper demand for their products. Different scholars at this point were come together and developed appropriate models for enhancing business progress in the State. They considered the presence of technological development in the area effectively increased proper growth in economic growth in that the level of competition for products was high and beneficial.

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Starting with Kotter in his model, different inventions could help the management to emerge as the most progressive one effectively. Although in his model, there were some minimal things that the model lacked, which is the absence of different vigorous fundaments hence making it to adequately become instantaneously successful during the time the model was advocated (Kotter, 1996, p. 70). The model, on the other hand, remains an advantageous one correctly because it has primarily been used as the essential reference in the field of management change. Starting with the leading change in Kotter's model, it's clear that he was earlier categorized as the best business in selling practices; hence the book became the best-selling one all over. Kotter moved a step further inadequately, contributing to adequately providing different stages for enough providing an organization (Kotter, 1996, p. 70). The limitations in the model included:

  • a. the presence of a rigid approach- whereby there was the need to adequately ensure that all steps that he had highlighted were to be followed in a sequential manner(Kotter, 1996, p. 70).
  • b. some stated levels were not relevant specifically in some contexts- Changes of a different meaning in the implementation area mainly becomes irreversible; hence a limitation (Kotter, 1996, p. 70).
  • c. Dealing with difficulties during change management- there are various difficulties that companies face during the implementation of change management (Kotter, 1996, p. 70).

Roger's, on the other hand, made came up with an appropriate adoption measure of the innovations that may have effectively helped in making proper progress of the management. He provided different elements that largely contributed towards the diffusion of various innovations which include;

  • a. innovation- whereby he had a room for effectively making a proper contribution towards adequately making appropriate management measures in the organization operations
  • b. communication channels- At this point, he moved a step further of defining communication as the process whereby different individuals can adequately sharing the information and finally reach a mutual agreement.
  • c. Time whereby the strengths and weaknesses of different individuals are effectively-known and understood in the management
  • d. Social system- He defined it as a set of different interrelated units that adequately help in solving a specific problem in an organization specifically for the management to achieve a collective aim.

He further made an evolution of the innovation-decision process, which could effectively run the organizational management (Surendra, 2001). The limitations of the model were that technological know-how was primarily required for development purposes, which were not easy to achieve by many individuals. On the other hand, the model required skilled labor to operate in that one was supposed to be conversant with the usage of computers for innovating purposes. The use of maximum quantitative research methods made the model tiresome to some users; hence the implementation of the model by the management became tiresome.

Lewin's also made development in his model, which entailed three steps for its operation. The steps included;

  • a. Unfreezing where the goal was to adequately ensure that there was adequate room for creating awareness on how the level of acceptability could be in obstructing the organizational progress in some way.
  • b. Changing where people in the organization have the mandate of effectively learning new ideas of development, different ways of thing, and also behaviors.
  • c. Refreezing- whereby the organization has the mandate of adequately ensuring that there is the reinforcement of organizational rules and regulations, providing solidification and sufficiently stabilizing new state measures after the occurrence of any change.

For him, the model is known to primarily play a critical room inappropriately, creating any perception when a change is needed and, at the same time, moving towards new organizational strategies. The model also entails a difference in the behavior of any individual, which may lead to redundancy in organizational progress. Different limitations of the model are that; the model appears to be very rational, plan, and goal-oriented. Due to this, at times, employees may feel much exited, precisely due to the presence of new changes in the organization. This is due to the lack of considerations of human feelings by the model in its operation. Secondly, the model requires full participation by every individual in that lack of involvement by one member may cause the model not to operate appropriately (Less, 2003). This is strict because the individual in the implementation process of the newly set ideas may not be conversant with them. Thirdly, the possible nature of the analysis may not strictly consequences in a compromise amid a given group. The presence of any field analysis can purely result in division amongst a given group strictly among the decision proposers and the opposers.

To finale, the three models have contributed mainly to effective development measures of the organization. They have adequately contributed towards the provision of appropriate information that may be beneficial to different management leaders in a given organization towards the provision of essential ideas of organizational growth and development.


Brock, J., Peak, K., & Bunch, P. (2019). Intuitively Leading Change: Completing a Kinesiology Department-to-School Transformation using Kotter's 8-Stage Change Model. Journal of Physical Education, 6(2), 14-24. Retrieved from

Less, K.H. (2003). Faculty adoption of computer technology for instruction in the North Carolina Community College System (Doctoral dissertation, East Tennessee State University, 2003). Request Digital Dissertations. (UMI No. AAT 3097072). Retrieved from

Surendra, S.S. (2001). Acceptance of Web technology-based education by professors and administrators of a college of applied arts and Technology in Ontario (Doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto, 2001). request Digital Dissertations. (UMI No. AAT NQ58603) Retrieved from,5&as_ylo=2019&q=Surendra,+S.S.+(2001).+Acceptance+of+Web+technology-based+education+by+professors+and+administrators+of+a+college+of+applied+arts+and+technology+in+Ontario+(Doctoral+dissertation,+University+of+Toronto,+2001).+ProQuest+Digital+Dissertations.+(UMI+No.+AAT+NQ

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