International Organizational Behavior

Published: 2019-10-07 08:00:00
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Satisfaction and Motivation Job satisfaction varies from one nation to the other depending on the behavior-cultural differences of the people. In efforts of studying the variance of the job satisfactions in different countries, Hofstede developed dimensions that guide the study of the differences (Edmundson, 2010, p. 5). This essay looks into some of the variances of the factors in an organization that leads to job satisfaction from the United States, India, and Japan. The study will use the Hofstedes dimensions to find out some of the differences between the cultures of the people that managers are required to understand for increased job satisfaction in the three countries. The countries present a good background for the study of the behavioral cultures because of the wide difference that exists between the peoples in the nations. The study would be helpful for managers in ensuring a successful management of people in the countries and decision making.

Hofstede identified power distance as a factor that affects the job satisfaction of individuals. Power distance was defined as the inequalities of power that exist between people. Depending on the country, different levels of power distance are acceptable, and employees derive satisfaction (Edmundson, 2010, p. 5). Power distance can be described as high, moderate or low depending on the difference between the most powerful and the least ones. In the United States, power distance is low and employees are more satisfied depending on the narrowness of the power distance. The difference in the income earned by employees and power should remain low for high job satisfaction. On the other hand, most of the Japans population is in middle class and they experience middle power distance (Ting-Toomey, 2012, p. 65). Employees are satisfied with the moderate amount of distance between the top management and the others. The difference in salaries is relatively low but higher than a low power distance society. Employees with jobs that have a moderate difference in salary and power with the top management are satisfied to work and find it enjoyable. India has a high power distance and the employees find it acceptable to have a salary that is low in comparison to the top management. The job satisfaction in these countries is derived from acquisition of employment no matter the power difference. Leaders in these countries use skills such as autocratic and they give instruction and expect not complaints but execution without failure. The employees find it acceptable and get used to the style of leadership.

Uncertainty varies from one country to the other and hence affects the job satisfaction. Some countries are known for being high-risk zones and employees become more satisfied if institutions that minimize risk cover them. Japan is a high-risk country and staffs in organizations in the country have more job satisfaction if they are insured (Walker, 2011, p. 88). On the other hand, the US and India are less risky nations and employees are satisfied without risk covers, and absorption of risk gives them job satisfaction.

Masculinity versus femininity is another measure of international satisfaction. A masculine society is characterized by aggressive working for money without a care for others. A feminist society, on the other hand, cares for the welfare of other and money is not the driving forces behind one working. Japan and India are high masculine country and employees are satisfied by only by earning money, but they do not care about the environment and welfare of others (Ting-Toomey, 2012, P. 72). Job satisfaction in the US, which is a relatively moderate masculine society, is brought by making money, caring for the environment, and welfare of the others. In the light of the sustainability in work environments, employees working in the US are satisfied by striking a balance between money earned, and sustainability achievements.

It is important to consider the way one perceives themselves in a group. In a country where people view themselves as individuals, training and work should consider the personal achievement for one to have job satisfaction (Walker, 2011, P. 91). The Unites States is a high individualistic society, and one tends to focus on self-goals, personal achievement serves as a great source of motivation to individuals. In India and Japan are collectivist communities and the tie between individual working in an organization is crucial. Ensuring of togetherness in the society motivates the individuals to work as a group.

An organization links the present or future challenges with the past and hence determines the motivation derived from in a job. Some societies are normative and others that are pragmatic, with those that score high having to keep traditions and norms and suspect what happens in the future (Ting-Toomey, 2012, P. 74). The US and India score low in this and employees in these societies are normative, and they associate the present and future challenges with norms and traditions. The two relies on region, hence taking a short-term orientation, where they associate present and future challenges with religion. Therefore, observation of norms and traditions leads to job satisfaction. In Japanese societies, pragmatic approach is adopted, and work is not perceived to depend on external factors. Life is seen in a short moment in the long history, and hence one the best in their life to get job satisfaction.

Job satisfaction varies from one country to the other and it necessary for managers to understand the organizational cultural behavior of individuals to determine the best ways of ensuring job satisfaction. Organization operating in different geographical locations should come up with means of ensuring that the factors are considered in their organizational culture to ensure success. One the individuals in a society are satisfied; the organizational productivity is also high and satisfactory.


Edmundson, A. (2010). Training for Multiple Cultures (pp. 1-19). Alexandria, Va.: American Society for Training & Development.

Ting-Toomey, S. (2012). Communicating Across Cultures (pp. 63-80). Guilford Press.

Walker, R. (2011). Strategic Management Communication (pp. 83-99). Australia: South-Western Cengage Learning.


Hofstede Dimension US Japan India

Power Distance Low Moderate High

Uncertainty Avoidance Low High Low

Masculinity versus Femininity Moderately high High High

Individualism versus Collectivism Individualistic Collective Collective

Long-Term versus Short-Term Orientation Low High Low


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