Tourism is one of the biggest and dynamically growing sectors of external economies of scale. It positively contributes to the economic and social growth of a country. It is due to large volumes of foreign money inflow, infrastructure development, and introduces new management and educational experience actively in various sector of the economy. It has employed over one-tenth of the world's workforce and provided about a tenth of the world's income. Most developed nations in the world, for instance, Austria, Italy, and Switzerland have generated most of their profits from this industry.
Japan currently has won the bid to host the 2020 Olympics and has embarked on promoting the inbound tourism. Some years back it had a low number of foreign tourists partly due to disagreement with China. However, as they discovered it is one of the industry with a high growth rate and after resolving issues with China it has benefited economically from this industry. Cambodia is in South East Asia it is endowed with enriched culture and natural potential. It is a kingdom, and the Royal government is working hard to ensure tourism is given a chance to accelerate economic growth. Cambodia has continually gained economic profits from this industry, and this is attributed to the Royal government positive policy.
Impact in Cambodia
There is an increase of foreign tourist receipts in Cambodia. They inject foreign money to the economy which aids in developing other economic activities. The government also earns revenue from this sector. One way is through direct contribution which is generated by taxes on incomes from tourism employment and tourism enterprises, also through direct levies on tourists such as departure taxes. The indirect contribution is the other way and is generated from duties levied and taxes on goods and services supplied to tourists. Creation of job opportunities is also brought about by this sector (Sharpley, & Telfer, 2015). Destinations such as Angkor and Sihanoukville have their residents getting income by working in hotels and restaurants, souvenir sales, taxis, and indirectly via the supply of goods and services to tourism-related enterprises.it has led to poverty alleviation in Cambodia. It has caused the Cambodia government to invest in infrastructure improvements such as communication networks, roads, water and sewage system, and public transportation networks. It has led to better quality of life for the locals as it promotes tourism. Local economies have been improved as tourists spend some of their money in the informal sector such as street vendors, rickshaw drivers, and informal guides. Money generated by these individuals is retained in the local economy.
Economic leakages in Cambodia account for 75% income generated from the tourism sector. Leakage is the amount of money paid outside the host country for imported goods and wages of expatriates (Carter et al., 2015). Import leakages occur when Cambodia cannot supply some standard machinery, food, and other products and have to be gotten from outside countries to cater for these needs. Export leakage also occurs where foreigners are the one who can build tourism infrastructure and facilities. When they take their earnings back home, it results in loss of income. Tourists currently prefer the all-inclusive package where they spend their entire vacation in the same hotel or cruise thus they spend a little amount of cash to the local communities (Mowforth, & Munt, 2015). It has been proved that this package has the lower impact on the economy.
Most vendors tend to raise prices in tourist destination area due to the rich tourists who can afford. It leaves locals struggling to afford basic goods and services due to the increased prices. Job insecurity occurs for locals due to the seasonal changes of the job. It causes them not enjoy medical benefits, house allowances, and other benefits. Cambodia government has put in place various domestic policies to reduce the level of leakage by various strategies (Rutty, Gossling, Scott, & Hall, 2015). It is providing incentives to reinvest gains and potential money transfer that would be invested overseas. Incentives are being offered to domestic investors to increase participation.
Cambodia has put in force 'The 2008 Protected Law' which has categorized eight natural areas. They include the national park, wildlife sanctuary, protected landscape, multi-purpose-use management area, biosphere reserve, natural heritage site, Marine Park, and Ramsar sites. They serve as tourist attraction sites. It is as a result of the justification of tourism that such measures have been put in place. They have also helped in reducing the drastic climate change that is occurring. Archaeological and historical sites such as the temples of Angkor Wat and Angkor Thom are also conserved as they serve as tourist destinations. It has helped in preserving the cultural heritage of Cambodia (Mowforth, & Munt, 2015). Developed infrastructure serving tourism has aided in reducing environmental impacts of water, air and another type of pollution and reduced congestion. Tourist expenditure has been used in research on better conservation programs. It has caused reduced harmful economic activities such as commercial fishing, and illegal logging. Moreover, residents have understood and gained awareness on environmental issues.
Siem Reap town has developed rapidly, and its adverse impact on the biophysical environment has been seen in the dry season. Tourism has caused urbanization of this town as it is the capital of Siem Reap province. It is proximal to Tonle Sap Great Lake, and World Heritage Angkor Complex hence has frequent visitors. Construction is ever ongoing which causes dirt, noise, and air pollution. Air and noise pollution is also caused by air, road and rail transport. Tourists mostly use air travel which contributes most of the carbon dioxide. It results in the release of greenhouse gases which has resulted in global warming. In the town, the backyard is a pile of garbage which is released to surface and groundwater sources. Large tourist hotels which lack sewage and water treatment plants discharge waste directly into rivers leading to its pollution. Pollution of Siem Reap River which goes to the Tonle Sap results in disruption of aquatic species and their death as plants grow rapidly causing depletion of oxygen. Increased hotels drilling boreholes causes disruption of the water table that destabilizes the foundation of Angkor building. Cambodia government should develop tourist attraction sites away from Phnom Penh-Siem Reap-Sihanouk village area to reduce the overstretching of these towns (Rutty, Gossling, Scott, & Hall, 2015). The resort should be encouraged on the importance of harvesting rainwater to reduce the digging of boreholes.
Changes that occur in the community as a result of interaction between traditional lifestyle and modern lifestyle. Cambodians have learned different lifestyles by demonstration effect that has led to improved lifestyle and practices. Some can communicate foreign language fluently which has improved their job resume. Local life has been enhanced as better local facilities and infrastructure which has led to better health care, education, income, and job opportunities. Conservation of archaeological sites is done as Angkok Thom have been maintained. More cultural events have available to locals (Mowforth, & Munt, 2015). Local and cultural heritage of Cambodia has been preserved as tourist come to enjoy it.
However, there may be a loss of authenticity in culture as more people continue integrating various cultures. Increased crime may develop due to the reduction in morals values, leading to greed and jealousy of the wealthier tourists (Rutty, Gossling, Scott, & Hall, 2015). Traditional industries have comprised their products as they try to mass produce artifacts, and souvenirs to meet the current demand by foreigners. Child labor has occurred as it involves long working hours, unstable employment this has forced young children to be recruited as they will need lower pay. Prostitution has increased as young people are getting easily lured by luxurious things and lifestyle. While trying to imitate the tourists' lifestyle, young people have found themselves indulging in drug abuse. Cambodia government, international organizations, and residents have in the past years campaigned for the control of the number of tourists.
Impact in Japan
Foreign visitors inject new money into the economy of Japan. Income generated from this industry is continually rising and is close to the automobile industry. The direct impact is felt when foreigners especially Chinese spend their money on shopping purchases and hotel accommodations. Indirect impact is felt when hotel owners spend this money to pay their workers (Seaton, & Yamamura, 2015). Creation of employment has also occurred as local Japanese who work in these shopping malls, and restaurants get jobs. Indirect employment occurs in industries which manufacture these commodities.
Leakages occur where some of the imported labor and products are paid back to their home countries. Although, Japan is not profoundly affected since it has promoted domestic tourism thus local goods are appealing to the tastes of the tourists (Carter et al., 2015). Furthermore, immigrants from other countries have acquired nationality in Japan hence no need to import much labor thus income generated in these sector remains in Japan.
Protected areas have been created such as 'Oze' in Nagano prefecture National Park are under the management of Ministry of the Environment in cooperation with other ministries, and local governments. It has been done to protect their scenic beauty, contribute to health, recreation and environmental education of people. It also has an aim to promote tourism in Japan.
Domestic tourists also visit cities such as Tokyo and Kyoto. When they visit these areas, there are repercussions of their direct or indirect consumptions. They caused waste generation, landfilling, and greenhouse gases emissions. It is through the air, rail, and land travel gases are emitted which result in global warming (Rutty, Gossling, Scott, & Hall, 2015). Landfilling was as a result of disposing of various wastes such as food products, scrap metals, and plastic bags. A scarcity of landfill sites in large cities is a significant environmental hazard. It is evident that with an increased flow of people it results in more waste material.
Japan has lobbied for ecotourism in their country. Where people were visiting the countryside move in small groups reducing the destruction of the natural resources. It also involves less use of automobiles when traveling these sites to reduce the emissions of greenhouse gases. It is also promoting environmentally friendly tourism by considering regional characteristics of an area. Future studies should concentrate on interregional interdependence in various parts of the country (Mowforth, & Munt, 2015). When a particular area attracts tourists who shop for multiple substances, eat different meals, and travel there is less load. However, other regions are overstretched as they try to produce various goods to meet these demands.
Japan locals have also culturally exchanged their vibrant culture with the foreigners resulting in diversity and harmonization (Seaton, & Yamamura, 2015). Conservation of archaeological sites is done as Tomb of Emperor Nintoku, and Oka castle ruins have been maintained. More cultural events have available to locals. Local and cultural heritage of Japanese has been preserved as tourist come to e...
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