Essay Sample on Hildegard Peplau: Interpersonal Relations Theory

Published: 2023-09-07
Essay Sample on Hildegard Peplau: Interpersonal Relations Theory
Essay type:  Reflective essays
Categories:  Medicine Nursing care Interpersonal communication
Pages: 6
Wordcount: 1531 words
13 min read

According to Hagety, nursing is a therapeutic and interpersonal exercise that transpires when nurses connect with individuals who require medical attention (Hagety et al., 2018). In her relationship theory, she stated that for the connection between patients and nurses to be successful, it must involve three specific phases. The first phase of the process is orientation where the patient realizes and adjusts to their current situation. Today, nurses apply this phase of the theory in greeting patients and gaining critical information about their condition (Hagety et al., 2018). The second step is the working phase, which involves assessments of the patient by nurses to prepare a plan for medical care. Nurses apply this phase today when providing reflective feedback and clarification of medical conditions. The third protocol is the termination phase which involves discharging the client from the healthcare premises. Nurses apply this phase today in educating patients on how to manage symptoms and conduct successful recovery measures at home.

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Utilization of the theory can result in positive patient outcomes such as the reduction of mortality, safe care, and positive patient experience. These outcomes are necessitated by effective communication, trust, and a friendly environment, which improves clarification and understanding of the medical condition. However, the difference in languages between the nurses and different patients acts as an obstacle to effective communication and successful implementation of the theory. Also, the limited number of nurses and the rapid increase in patients causes an imbalance in the nurse-patient ratio, which can result in a poor relationship. The language difference barrier can be eliminated by training of nurses on multiple languages and preparing them for a patient from any ethnic group. On the other end, the patient-nurse can be balanced through practice and the acquisition of nurses to address the shortage.

Erickson’s Modeling and Role Modeling Theory of Nursing (MRM)

The development of the modeling and role modeling theory is credited to Swain, Erickson, and Tomlin. Modeling emphasizes on the assessment of the patient's situation and understanding his or her perspective of the condition (Smith &Parker, 2015). On the other hand, role modeling involves the nurse nurturing the patient to promote his or her health condition. Current nurses apply the theory in establishing a mindset through the organization of the available resources to enable connection with the client. Nurses also use the approach to create a nurturing space and an environment that facilitates healing. Today, nursing practices utilize the MRM theory in promoting unconditional acceptance of the uniqueness of the patient (Smith & Parker, 2015).

The utilization of the MRM theory can result in multiple positive patient outcomes. For instance, the theory advocates for the creation of caring-healing, which facilitates the growth of the well-being of the patients (Smith & Parker, 2015). Also, the theory promotes the development of a trusting functional connection, which focus on affirming the patients' worth and assist them in mobilizing the necessary tools to cope with the condition. Besides, utilizing the theory enables nurses to act as healing agents and motivate patients to find the purpose of their lives. The approach involves the process of sharing emotional stories and traumatic events encountered by the patients. This is a significant obstacle to the implementation of the theory since it can cause psychological damage to the nurses. However, this obstacle can be eliminated through the assigning of chaplains or other staff members to support the nurses emotionally and share their daily experiences while delivering duties.

Dorothy Johnson’s Behavioral System Model (JBSM)

Johnson identifies human patients as behavioral systems consisting of other subsequent subsystems and linked to the environment, which comprises of interpersonal, physical, and sociocultural factors that support the system. Therefore, nurses are adjustment forces from external sources that are responsible for the organization of the client’s behavior to facilitate adequate performance (Ghanbari & Pouy, 2018). The current nurses apply the JBSM to understand the surrounding environment of the patient that might influence his or her health. In doing so, the theory benefits nurses in the assigning of an appropriate intervention measure that affects behavioral system balance. Also, nurses have applied the model in accounting for the differences in the expression of aggressive behavioral actions in elderly patients. According to Tamilarasi and Kanimozhi, as cited by Smith and Parker, 2015, the model is applicable to the development of nursing interventions to increase the lifespan of breast cancer patients.

JBSM enhances nursing satisfaction by assisting the nurses in identifying the end product of the system. Also, the model provides nurses with the strategy to identify the source of illness and how to restore balance within the system (Smith & Parker, 2015). The utilization of this model results in positive health outcomes, such as a reduction in deaths, health complications, and risks to develop other severe system conditions. However, the model's complexity due to a wide range of possible interrelationships between the behavioral system and the environment presents an obstacle to its implementation. This barrier can be reduced through proper training and familiarization of nurses to several subsystems and components of the surrounding.

Florence Nightingale's Nursing Theory of Care

Nightingale defined nursing as the criteria for utilizing the surrounding environment of the patient to facilitate the recovery process. Environmental factors include cleanliness, efficient drainage, pure water, light, and clean air (Smith & Parker, 2015). Nurses should, therefore, aim at helping the patients to retain significant powers via meeting their needs and putting them in a condition for nature to act. Nurses apply the theory of Nightingale today in championing health care systems that will attend to the needs of patients worldwide.

Also, nurses, today apply the concepts of Nightingale theory in keeping the community healthy through environmental control and sanitation. However, the practice of this theory is difficult since it does not mention the protocols to handle extremely needy patients. Nurses attending to such patients are at risk of psychological drainage, which is harmful to other patients under the same nurse. Therefore, the number of patients assigned to one nurse can be reduced to decrease the risk of spreading diseases or poor services due to exhaustion.

Sister Callista Roy’s Adaptation Model (RAM)

According to Jennings, humans are adaptive systems with subsystems that function in unity to promote one's well-being and environment transformations (Jennings, 2017). Therefore, the role of nurses is to support adaptation through the enhancement of life processes, thereby contributing to quality health and life. Current nurses apply the theory in various ways, including identification of the adaptation levels of the clients, behaviors, and stimuli, and stress management strategies. The approach benefits nurses through the provision of an understanding of self-concept that enables them to evaluate the actions and incentives influencing patients. The model has multiple system structures and concepts, which requires time, resources, and efforts to implement (Gonzalo, 2019). However, this challenge can be solved by focusing on facilitating humanization and life patterns.

Leininger’s Theory of Culture Care

According to McFarland & Wehbe-Alamah, nursing practices should aim at providing care based on cultural values, norms, lifestyles, and beliefs. Nurses majorly focus on providing positive care to patients from similar or distinct cultural setups. Nurses apply this model to understand the interdependence between culture and health care (McFarland & Wehbe-Alamah, 2019). Also, current nurses use the approach to discover and acknowledge differences and similarities between various cultures. The model ensures nursing satisfaction through guidance in learning new practices, meanings, and how they influence the health of an individual (McFarland & Wehbe-Alamah, 2019). Utilizing the theory leads to positive patient outcomes, including improved well-being of the patients, reduced mortality, and improved courage to face disabilities or health conditions. Since the approach involves intercultural interactions and crossing of languages, its practice can sometimes be challenging. Also, inadequate information and financial problems can limit health workers from conducting regular follow-ups (Amiri et al., 2016). However, the obstacle can be neutralized through the use of interpreters and sign language experts.


Amiri, R., Heydari, A., Dehghan-Nayeri, N., Vedadhir, A.A., & Karehki, H. Challenges of

transcultural carina mon health workers in Mashhad-Iran: A qualitative study. Global Journal of Health Science (2016). 8(7): 203-211.

Ghanbari, A., & Pouy, S. (2018). Designing a nursing care program based on Johnson behavioral

model in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia: A case study. International Journal of Caring Sciences, 11(1): 631-638.

Gonzalo, A. (2019, September 11). Sister Callista Roy: Adaptation model of nursing. Nurse


Hagety, T.A., Samuels, W., Norcini-Pala, A., & Gigliotti, E. (2018). Peplau’s theory of

interpersonal relations: A temporary factor structure for patient experience data? Nurs Sci Q, 30(2): 160-167., K.M. (2017). The Roy adaptation model: A theoretical framework for nurses

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