Health Risks of Obesity - Paper Example

Published: 2024-01-30
Health Risks of Obesity - Paper Example
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  Healthcare Diabetes
Pages: 5
Wordcount: 1151 words
10 min read


Obesity also termed as overweight, is when an individual has abnormal or excessive fat to impair their health. Obesity is commonly determined through the body mass index (BMI) that gives weight to height ratio. The BMI index can determine the appropriate weight range for an individual, depending on their age and height. Any weight above the given range is considered overweight or obese. Obesity is a condition beyond being overweight. According to the World Health Organization, an overweight person has a BMI index equal to or greater than 25. In contrast, an obese person has a BMI equal to or greater than 30 ("Obesity and Overweight," par. 3). In this paper, the health risks of obesity are identified to demonstrate the need for prevention measures to curb the condition and avoid the associated health impacts.

Trust banner

Is your time best spent reading someone else’s essay? Get a 100% original essay FROM A CERTIFIED WRITER!

The prevalence of obesity today is an indicator of the gravity of the matter. According to WHO, over 1.9 billion adults above 18 were older as of 2016 ("Obesity and Overweight" par. 7). Out of these, 650 million were obese. The number of overweight individuals is essential because it represents a population that is likely to be obese. The population represents 39percent men and 40 percent of women being overweight and 13 percent of the world adult population being obese ("Obesity and Overweight" par. 7). The rates today have significantly increased when compared with the past. Between 1975 and 2016, the prevalence of obesity has increased almost thrice. In children, an approximate 38.2 million aged below five years are overweight. Over 340 million children aged between five and nineteen are obese ("Obesity and Overweight" par. 7). These numbers are an indicator that obesity is a severe issue cutting across all ages. Also, there is a developing trend of high numbers of overweight and obesity in low- and middle-income nations ("Obesity and Overweight" par. 8). The problem that once dominated high-income regions is on the rise in low- and middle-income regions. Therefore, it is a universal challenge for a society that needs redress, especially considering its health consequences.

Obesity and Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is commonly associated with individuals with high body mass index equal to or over 30. In a Nurses' research on middle-aged women, those with a BMI above 35 were at higher risks of developing diabetes than the women with a BMI of less than 22(Abdullah et al., 309-319). In the study, the risk of getting diabetes was due to weight gain during adulthood. This was not only in women, but it was also associated with men.

Obese people secrete hormones and other substances from fat cells around the waist, which fire inappropriate inflammations. These inflammations cause various health complications; they make the body lesser responsive to insulin and transforms the body's metabolism of fats, hence driving to high sugar proportions in the blood and ultimately leading to diabetes (Rocha et al., 399). The reduction of diabetes risks can be reduced or delayed by weight loss by obese persons.

Obesity and Cardiovascular Diseases

A persons' body weight is directly linked to many cardiovascular risk factors. An increase in BMI increases blood pressure, blood sugar, bad cholesterol, and triglycerides. These changes translate into an increased risk of stroke, cardiovascular death, and coronary heart diseases.

Obesity can increase the risk of Ischemic stroke, the rate of death due to coronary artery diseases, and a higher rate of developing coronary artery disease. However, 10 to 15 percent of body weight reduction lowers bad cholesterol, triglycerides, and blood pressure (Look AHEAD Research Group, 145-154). The reduction of body weight reduces an individual's risk of cardiovascular complications.

Obesity and Reproduction

Obesity influences many aspects of reproduction, including sexual activity and even conception. In a Nurses' study, infertility in women with BMIs between 20 and 25 was lowest and increased with an increase in women's BMIs (Huda et al., 28). In pregnant women, obesity increases the risks of miscarriages both early and late, complications during labor, preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes (Huda et al., 32). In men, an increase in BMI increases asthenospermia, low sperm motility, and oligospermia, which is a low sperm count (Fui et al., 223). Erectile dysfunction in men is also associated with a high BMI; this reduces sexual activity and chances of conception.

Modest bodyweight loss can adversely influence fertility in both men and women. Birth-related complications in women will be reduced. In men, asthenospermia, oligospermia, and erectile dysfunction will be reduced.

Obesity and Respiratory Diseases

Obesity impairs lung function through metabolic and mechanical pathways. Abdominal fat accumulation limits a descent diaphragm; this leads to lung expansion. Visceral fat accumulation reduces the sap respiratory muscle strength, narrows airways in the lungs, and reduces the chest wall's flexibility (Wang, 16). Lung function may also be impeded by low-grade inflammation associated with obesity. Obesity also increases an individual's risk of developing asthma and obstructive sleep apnea.

Obesity and Musculoskeletal Disorders

Obesity sets metabolic and mechanical overburdens on muscles, joints, and bones. An approximated one in six people in the United States have arthritis. Hip and Knee Osteoarthritis is positively linked to obesity, and one-third of joint replacement operations are obese patients (Jensen, 19). Obesity is also associated with lower limb pain, disability due to musculoskeletal complications, and back pain.


The essay illustrates that obesity is not just an independent condition but an issue that creates room for further complications. The trends indicate an increasing prevalence of obesity across all ages and socioeconomic backgrounds. Obesity increases an individual's risk of getting type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular conditions, issues of reproduction systems in both men and women., respiratory diseases and musculoskeletal disorders. Therefore, it is crucial to take steps in our lifestyles to reduce and possibly eliminate obesity. Obesity has a heavy bearing on an individual and the health sector due to the associated comorbidities.

Works Cited

Abdullah, Asnawi, et al. "The magnitude of association between overweight and obesity and the risk of diabetes: a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies." Diabetes research and clinical practice 89.3 (2010): 309-319.

Fui, Mark Ng Tang, Philippe Dupuis, and Mathis Grossmann. "Lowered testosterone in male obesity: mechanisms, morbidity and management." Asian journal of andrology 16.2 (2014): 223.

Huda, Shahzya S., Lauren E. Brodie, and Naveed Sattar. "Obesity in pregnancy: prevalence and metabolic consequences." Seminars in Fetal and Neonatal Medicine. Vol. 15. No. 2. WB Saunders, 2010.

Jensen, M. D., et al. "2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society." (, 2014).

Look AHEAD Research Group. "Cardiovascular effects of intensive lifestyle intervention in type 2 diabetes." New England journal of medicine 369.2 (2013): 145-154.

"Obesity and Overweight." Who. Int. 2020,

Rocha, Viviane Z., and Peter Libby. "Obesity, inflammation, and atherosclerosis." Nature Reviews Cardiology 6.6 (2009): 399.

Wang, Cheryl. "Obesity, inflammation, and lung injury (OILI): the good." Mediators of Inflammation 2014 (2014).

Cite this page

Health Risks of Obesity - Paper Example. (2024, Jan 30). Retrieved from

Request Removal

If you are the original author of this essay and no longer wish to have it published on the SpeedyPaper website, please click below to request its removal:

Liked this essay sample but need an original one?

Hire a professional with VAST experience!

24/7 online support

NO plagiarism