|Type of paper:
|Healthcare Diabetes Community health
The 20th century has made the United States experience fundamental change when the white people rooted in with an array of ethnic and racial minorities. At the beginning of the century, the population had 87 per cent white people (Arriaga, 2016). The minority was composed of the black Americans that resided on the rural South. Even though by the end of the century, the non-Hispanic population decreased to 75 per cent, most of them were blacks, Asians and a growing community of the American Indian people (Arriaga, 2016). By the 21st century, the Hispanic multiplied and became part of the U.S population. The American Indians, Asians and the Blacks, on the other hand, add up to one-fourth of American's society. The essay will elaborate more on Diabetes and Hypertension on the Caucasian, Latino and the African American people.
The growth of the Asian, Caucasian and the African American population profoundly changed the multicultural and multiracial heritage of America (Arriaga, 2016). Many businesses that were developed targeted the minorities because of the expanding market. The aspect of the Caucasians, the African Americana and the Latino included music, style of dress and art. However, the element of food brought other controversial health issues (Arriaga, 2016). Most of them were fond of taking junk food, and this made them get chronic illnesses that they battled with for years.
Diabetes and Hypertension in Caucasians, Latinos and African American
In the U.S, African Americans are the ones that are diagnosed with diabetes as compared to the Hispanic whites. Most of them have a higher chance of suffering the complications of diabetes, such as extremity amputation and end-stage renal diseases (Vimalananda et al., 2010). Even though the majority has lower rates of cholesterol as compared to the whites, they have higher chances of getting high blood pressure.
In 2010, research revealed that the African American adults had 80 per cent higher chances to have diabetes as compared to the Caucasians. The study also showed that the same number had higher chances of being diagnosed with end-stage renal complication. In 2013, another study the study revealed that African Americans had higher chances of dying from diabetes as compared to the Latino and Caucasians (Steinhardt et al., 2017).
In the U.S, hypertension remains one of the most dangerous and leading causes of high deaths due to heart attacks that affect non-Hispanic blacks. The etiology, prevalence, and mortality of hypertension vary by ethnicity and race (Mccarthy., 2016). Several studies have also shown that variability by ethnicity and race in hypertension shows that blacks had the highest prevalence that was diagnosed with hypertension died very fast.
Health disparities on these ethnic groups also contain variability's that are not understood because of the factors associated with race. This condition also surrogated the cause of high blood pressure, especially if an individual takes high sodium intake, has hyperlipidemia, is obese or overweight. Explanatory factors related to hypertension when it comes to ethnic /racial differences include access and utilization of hospitals, prognostic factors, family income and demographic factors (Mccarthy., 2016). The burden of hypertension in this case among the ethnic minorities is brought by the variability of racial distribution of comorbidities.
Pathophysiology and Etiology of Diabetes and Hypertension
Genome scans consist of thousands of controls and subjects that have small effects as compared to genes that have significant consequences. In other words, the genetic variances in the gene that encodes with adrenomedullin, accudin and apolipoprotein have been known to be familiar to diseases such as metabolic syndrome, dysglycemia, diabetes and hypertension (Connell & Freel, 2011). Despite the genetic aspects, another reason that causes hypertension and diabetes is environmental factors such as lifestyle like physical activity and diet. In adults, for instance, fetal malnutrition, high birth weight and gestational diabetes are factors that result in the cardiometabolic syndrome. The high intake of unsaturated fat, sodium alcohol, mental stress and lack of physical activities are examples that can make a person live an unhealthy lifestyle.
Obesity is a condition that has been identified as the most significant contributor to diabetes and hypertension. Obese individuals also have higher chances of being diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and hypertension. Research conducted in western countries have revealed that obesity has led to risk factors have clustered the pathophysiological connection between diabetes and hypertension. Obesity, in other words, begins to form the dysfunctions that feed the brain, expenditure, genetic variations and imbalances of energy intake. Mostly obesity is determined by genes where most of them variate to weight addition is because of genetic predisposition.
Oxidative Stress and Inflammation
A low-grade process of inflammatory takes place in both hypertension and diabetes. In other words, the chronic periodontitis has developmental factors of cardiovascular diseases, hypertension, metabolic syndrome and diabetes (Tailor, Stokes, K., & Granger, 2005). Inflammatory markers such as CRP (C-reactive proteins) are increased whenever the patient is diagnosed with metabolic syndrome, hypertension and diabetes to develop and predict the diseases. For vascular pathophysiology, the local renin-angiotensin-aldosterone plays a vital role as it is expressed in the coronary artery plaques.
Evidence-Based Practice for Medical Management of Diabetes and Hypertension
The health-related issues in disparities between the nonminority and minority are by controlling hypertension among the citizens. People of color that live in the U.S experience higher rates of renal diseases, heart diseases and stroke than the whites. Such conditions are mostly associated with greater severity, higher prevalence, and lower rates of hypertension control with the younger-onset among the whites. Even though a few measures have been made to control hypertension, only 53% that were treated in 2000 was also diagnosed with high blood pressure (Mcfarlane, 2011).
The control rates for the Latino and African American patients that were under treatment had lower rates of good health as compared to the Caucasians. As much as the minority group had dietary modifications that led to the reduction of sodium intake to facilitate weight loss, blood pressure in the group also reduced. It is therefore essential to reduce the fat intake for people diagnosed with hypertension because high cholesterol will expose them to higher risks such as cardiovascular diseases (Mcfarlane, 2011). Even though changing the diet of people is difficult, it is essential that their eating habits and foods are put as an integral part of their lifestyles and culture.
Several studies have also shown that there is a connection in ethnicity in both dietary patterns and obesity. Latinos and Africa Americans are more likely to be obese than whites. This is because both groups have diets that have fewer vegetables and fruits. The Latinos, for instance, eat foods that are high in fat than the rest of the groups. The same study has also shown that the ethnicity of Latinos have strong predictors because of the foods they consume. Factors that make the Latinos and African Americans to be diagnosed with diseases are derived from their choices of food.
A qualitative study that was done also added that the choices of foods for the Latinos and African Americans do not change because of taste but the aspect of ethnic and racial culture. For instance, Latinos believe that whole milk is a symbol of prosperities. The African Americans, on the other hand, have food preferences derived from the impact of slavery and the foods their ancestors consumed. To improve the blood pressure for the minority groups, the best way os developing interventions that managed the group with hypertension so that their conditions may be maintained.
Even though there are effective ways of treating hypertension and diabetes, between the non-white and white populations, most minority groups that have hypertension were also seen to suffer from other complications. It is very clear that treatment of hypertension needs to align the lifestyle and diet, especially to patients. The findings show that even though people with color the most that take high-calorie food, making them adhere to a healthy diet is the only way to make them healthy. The study has also shown that the Latino and African American citizens that are diagnosed with hypertension can get better when they change their diet. Insights have been applied in this study to show how diabetes and hypertension affect the Caucasians, Latinos and African Americans. The goal of this study was not only to find the management plan to treat chronic diseases but also to promote healthy diets that align with people's culture.
Arriaga, F. (2016). Teaching and Learning Guide for: "Understanding Crimmigration: Implications for Racial and Ethnic Minorities within the United States." Sociology Compass, 10(11), 1072-1076. doi: 10.1111/soc4.12419
Connell, J. M., & Freel, E. M. (2011). Primary aldosteronism and other steroid-related causes of endocrine hypertension. Oxford Textbook of Endocrinology and Diabetes, 2(2), 810-824. doi: 10.1093/med/9780199235292.003.0570
Mccarthy, M. (2016). Falls are leading cause of injury deaths among older people, US study finds. Bmj, 3(2), 190-245. doi: 10.1136/bmj.i5190
Mcfarlane, S. I. (2011). Management of hypertension in diabetes. Management of Hypertension in Diabetes, 2-5. doi: 10.2217/ebo.11.372
Tailor, A., Stokes, K., & Granger, D. N. (2005). Role of Oxidative Stress in Hypercholesterolemia-Induced Inflammation. Oxidative Stress and Disease Oxidative Stress, Inflammation, and Health, 2(11), 221-244. doi: 10.1201/9781420028256.ch10
Steinhardt, M. A., Mamerow, M. M., Brown, S. A., & Jolly, C. A. (2017). A Resilience Intervention in African American Adults With Type 2 Diabetes. The Diabetes Educator, 35(2), 274-284. doi: 10.1177/0145721708329698
Vimalananda, V. G., Rosenzweig, J. L., Cabral, H. J., David, M. M., & Lasser, K. E. (2010). Comparison of Diabetes Control Among Haitians, African Americans, and Non-Hispanic Whites in an Urban Safety-Net Hospital. Diabetes Care, 34(1), 58-60. doi: 10.2337/dc10-1387
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