Final Project Milestone One Part I: Literature Review

Published: 2017-09-17 10:02:15
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University of California, Santa Barbara
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Literature review
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According to many researches done in the past, it has been brought out that there is a relation between the uprising of mental illness in the later stages of the lives of children and the exposure of the infant in an environment which is psychologically disturbed. Despite the fact that the role played by genetics in the growth of mental illness has been justified by the researches done in the past, it is also important to know that other biological processes can be responsible for such ailment. These biological processes determine how genes from the two parents are genetically combined in a zygote. To come up with answers to the question on how the physical and mental upshot of children is determined by genetics, a proper research plan should be carried out.

In the field of social psychology, there is existence of a gap since the relationship between mental ailment and genetics cannot be substantiated. Any activity aimed towards investigating this occurrence will require the use of a research design which deals which correlation, the reason being that, in the research, the independent variables cannot be easily controlled. The fact that the independent variables can only be measured makes the research design helpful. The preliminary study ideas retrieved from the second module discussion concerning relationship amid the mental problems that are prenatal and the danger of children being problematic psychologically are what are based on when choosing a research plan.

Identification of various variables including the mental disorders that are prenatal, economic-social status and difficulties experienced when giving care is done in the second module discussion.  Analyzing of the variables with the aim of finding out whether the psychological effects in children are affected by them is done. The fact that these variables cannot be manipulated is what brings in the use of a design of research which deals with correlation between mental ailments in kids and genetics.

In the process of carrying out the research, there are two elements whose consideration should be added. The first one being, more than one gene is encompassed by mental disarrays. This is shown in those studies that are past research which show that different genes located in dissimilar chromosomes  in dissimilar people cause mental disarrays. Secondly, similar level of penetrance amid people is not occasionally exemplified by the genes linked with mental disease. The rate with which particular effects in particular people are developed by a specified in is what is referred to as penetrance in such a case.

Implementation of the research plan will be done by carrying out a survey randomly on those women who have had at least one child in the past that is ill mentally. Data collection from women is done by the use of a questionnaire, regarding their knowledge of the mental ailment of their young ones being contributed on by their genes. The ethics issue proposed in the question of research will be managed by one major approach, the use of a questionnaire that is  open ended is essential in this sector to allow the parents to only fill those questions they are okay with particularly those containing their children who have mental sickness. This is because the issue of mental ailment amid children is an issue that is sensitive among many parents.

Review of the first article

Corrigan, P. W, & Penn, D. L. (2015). Lessons from social psychology on discrediting psychiatric stigma. Stigma and Health, 1(S), 2.

The research is aimed at demonstrating that groups of public advocacy, the government and groups of public service should enhance the integration of evidence of research in social psychology in the implementation of programs, strategies and interventions in order to prevent stigma against those being affected with brutal mental ailment. A hypothesis made by the authors states that, if protests are used in mitigating disgrace among those who have severe mental ailment then it will be productive. Another argument made by the authors is that a lot of stereotypes are supple; this lessens the effect of education in extenuating them. Basing on the evidence of the research, a proposal made by the authors says that, equality promotion, interaction of society with cooperatives and support of institutions are the intervention which are mostly effective which can defeat the stigma that is directed by the society members to that person having mental illness.

Social typecasts are brought up by authors as major independent variables associated with their research. According to the researchers, the stigma being faced with persons with mental illness is attributed to by the stereotypes. Different factors contributing to the stigmatization of people having harsh mental ailment are examined by the authors with an attempt of finding a solution to the societal issue that has been identified. This encompasses the beliefs and values which are directed by the society to those people having mental problems. Ineffective methods used by the government organizations, public advocacy organizations, and public service organizations lead to gaps in the research literature which are identified by the researchers. The problems identified are presented with reliable solutions by doing the meta-analysis of the research literature that is of the past.

Review of the second article

Monforton, J, Vickers, K, & Antony, M. M. (2012) “If only I Didn’t Embarrass Myself in Front of The class!” Social Anxiety and Upward Counterfactual Thinking. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 31(3), 312.

This article is aimed at examining and reporting the relationship existing between the “if only…” thoughts and social nervousness. The hypothesis made in this research is that, there is a relationship between social nervousness and the thoughts which make someone imagine that there would have been better things if dissimilar measures were taken.

Review of the third article

Stein, A, Pearson, R. M, Goodman, S. H, Rapa, E, Rahman, A, Mccallum, M, & Pariante, C.M. (2014). Effects of perinatal  mental disorders on the fetus and child. The Lancet, 384(9956), 1800-1819.

This article is purposed at examining the relationship between the dangers of psychological problems being developed in a child and the perinatal mental ailments. The hypothesis linked with is study is that, an important role in affecting the growth of psychological problems amid children is played by the perinatal mental illness. The meta-analysis of longitudinal studies was used by researchers in bringing up the relationship between the two.

Review of the fourth article

Yao, Z, & Yu, R. (2016). The spreading of social energy : How Exposure to Positive and Negative Social News Affects Behavior. Plos ONE, 11(6), 1-12 doi: 10. 1371/ journal. Pone. 0156062.

The research carried out by this article was aimed at reviewing the effect of social reports on social behavior and social relations. A hypothesis is stated that an important role in controlling the social custom is played by the social news. Principles which are ethical were observed by the authors in their study.

Review of the fifth article

Grant, A.M., Brown, B., & Moreno, M.A (2013). The disparity between social drinking motives and social outcomes : A new perspective on college student drinking. College Student  Journal , 47(1), 96-101.

This article is aimed at determining the interaction between drinking habits and purpose for social drinking. It was based on the hypothesis that those who drink do not know the effects brought about by this behavior. Collection of data is done by the use of interviews. Results from the study showed that, kinds of friends do not affect the drinking behavior of someone.

References

Corrigan, P. W., & Penn, D. L. (2015). Lessons from social psychology on discrediting psychiatric stigma. Stigma and Health, 1(S), 2

Grant, A. M., Brown, B. B., & Moreno, M. A. (2013). The disparity between social drinking motives and social outcomes: A new perspective on college student drinking. College Student Journal, 47(1), 96-101.

Monforton, J., Vickers, K., & Antony, M. M. (2012). " If Only I Didn't Embarrass Myself in Front of the Class!": Social Anxiety and Upward Counterfactual Thinking. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 31(3), 312

Stein, A., Pearson, R. M., Goodman, S. H., Rapa, E., Rahman, A., McCallum, M., & Pariante, C. M. (2014). Effects of perinatal mental disorders on the fetus and child. The Lancet, 384(9956), 1800-1819.

Yao, Z., & Yu, R. (2016). The spreading of social energy: how exposure to positive and negative social news affects behavior. Plos ONE, 11(6), 1-12. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0156062

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