|Type of paper:||Dissertation hypothesis|
Over the time, the definition, practice, and principles of project management have changed in the face of increasing globalization and technological advancements. In essence, the definition of project management begins with the understanding of the concept of the project, which is a temporary undertaking with a definite timeline. Project management researchers and theorists have based their definitions on the current trends and the projections for the future. In the past, the concept of project management acted as a planning and technique-oriented academic field, which mainly applied in engineering works and optimization. In the contemporary times, the advancement in technology has resulted into project planning software that improves the business process, decision making roles of managers, and the ease of execution of projects (Hornstein, 2015). Project managers and their teams should understand the goals, integration needs of the organization and achieve the requirements of the projects within the terms and conditions of the tasks. Project management includes activities that promote the efficiency, effectiveness, timely, and quality execution of projects as per the guidelines, policies, budget, and skills, which results in meeting the project requirements.
Lots of research has focused on the methodologies that enhance the general factors of successful project management. As far as the mid-20th century, project management gained popularity as a profession with strong academic interest and emergence of creative methods and strategies for successful project management. However, even with the passage of time, there are recurring elements of project management that remain to date, including stages of initiation, planning, execution, monitoring and controlling, and the closing of projects. In most instances, scholars and researchers have focused on different areas of project management such as integration, time, scope, cost, procurement, quality, communication, and human resource and stakeholder management (Olson, 2014). Therefore, project management principles and concepts should bear in mind these factors for the achievement of project requirements. Cost and time are considered to be ideal factors at the onset of the study on human resource management. However, with time, integration, communication, and management of stakeholders' expectation have evolved to become integral for the managers of different projects across any industry. Successful plans have to be shaped by the resources and schedules, goals, and timeline, which the project managers have to adhere to during the project.
Project management as a practice and profession has evolved to become a central activity in almost all organizations in such areas as improvement of existing products and services, software development, marketing campaigns, and initiation of new service. Through effective project management practices, organizations can efficiently control such demerits as delays, failure to deliver on project expectations, and other disappointments. Furthermore, most projects fail to meet the budget goals and the expectations of the stakeholders, which create a gap. Project management concepts have evolved, beginning in the 1960s up to the current timeline. For example, the project management concept of the 1960s focused on scheduling, while the next century majored on teamwork and participation amongst the members of the project team (Hornstein, 2015). Consequently, the ensuing centuries concentrate on uncertainty reduction through firm decisions, the orchestration of contending demands through simultaneity, and strategic focus and globalization. The evolutionary path of project management concepts has ideally meant that individuals and organizations have to adapt to the changes in business management such as technology and globalization.
Fundamentally, project management goals should address the categorization challenges in most organization. Most organizations categorize projects for undertaking based on different organizational purposes such as differentiation of new and ongoing projects, capability alignment, and strategic alignment. Most project management works efficiently upon the categorization of the projects regarding novelty, complexity, technology, and criticality of the timeframe. The categorization guidelines enable for efficiency in the application of project management concepts to achieve the goals and outcomes. Importantly, in-depth understanding of project management concepts and theories highlight the importance of increased studies to explore closer categorization goals, according to Hasibuan and Dantes (2012). For instance, should there be different approach while managing projects across diverse industries such as hospitality, petroleum, sports, agriculture, and business management? Categorization of different sectors enables the achievement of project goals through specificity and specialization to avoid clouding and blunt approaches that practitioners employed in the past. Project planning and execution require specific knowledge and project leadership, which are ideal values that project managers should possess.
Project management impacts on ERP systems implementation
The ERP system entails a set of application software that defines, organizes, and standardizes the organizational processes for more natural management through planning and control. Businesses have benefitted from the evolution of technology and computers, which has resulted in different models, software applications that improve the management of organization's activities. Through the ERP system, organizations can understand and enhance the relationship between processes and products, enhance the ability to control the information flow across different departments, improve the procedures in the organization such as in the production and distribution of products. Furthermore, a series of application planners in ERP system enhances the ability of the organizations and businesses to generate feedbacks and recommendations on improvement of the services and products, according to Olson, (2014). With the generation of appropriate proposals, organizations can achieve the forecasted goals on the management and competitiveness across different industries in which it competes. Therefore, every business requires the ERP applications, which serve as computer models for various companies, which are synonymous with the operations of such organization.
ERP primarily works as a planning tool based on the top-down hierarchical operations on resource allocation and planning, production controls, and other master planning roles. ERP system a core component of the business model and is ideally the technology that the business uses to achieve the management goals concerning planning and controlling. In most organizations, ERP system lays on a single database with comprehensive data analysis tools that explores a wide range of information in the organization. The information is sourced from such sources as production, human resource, goals and mission statements, as well as the research outcomes on improvement and efficiency of services (Ram & Corkindale, 2014). There should be presetting of the ERP system to enable it to handle the full range of information across these sources, which improves the recommendations and feedback that the management of businesses can retrieve. Therefore, technology is an ideal component of the ERP system, hence the need to upgrade the technological appliances used in these organizations to achieve the outcome that projects require.
It is ideal that management should employ the latest and the most efficient technology that will improve the project management through recommendations. Project management skills and practices in an organization are therefore directly related to the successful implementation of ERP application in an organization. Through the use of such technological components as internet connectivity and other links on e-business practices, it is possible to achieve the project management expectations. Internet connectivity, for instance, is an essential part of generating and managing projects on e-commerce, supplier and consumer relationship, and achievement of collaboration through connectivity in the organizations (Schwalbe, 2015). An elaborate project management practices in an organization would offer a platform for the successful application of ERP system to achieve the project goals and expectations. Smaller and larger ERP implementations require broad project management framework and strategies to fulfill, including software updates. Just like project management concepts and principles, implementation of ERP system in any organization need regular and effective communication, achieve the expectations of the stakeholders, enhanced change management practices, risk management potentiality, and cost-benefit assessment to deliver the project satisfaction.
Understanding and knowledge of project management principles improve the ERP implementations in any setting, based on the need to understand the impacts of the project to the end users. The decisions that most project managers make are best distinguished based on their anticipated effects on the stakeholders such as consumers, investors, and public agencies in the industry. Therefore, project management leads to successful implementation of ERP as it balances the business concepts and the technical needs of an organization. Furthermore, the administration will understand how the ERP decisions impact the budgeting, financial statement, and other ongoing processes and business operations. Hasibuan and Dantes (2012) underscored that project management concept appeal to the best outcome of the business operations and improved the efficiency of pace and budgets. It is the same concept that the ERP systems in an organization called for the interdependence in the knowledge and practice of the same. Project management teams are essential for the success of different projects, while also improving the performance of the businesses regarding decision making, improvement of ineffective and inefficient processes, and finding solutions to business challenges.
Project management can, therefore, be used to source for the best ERP systems concerning software that improves the efficiency, effectiveness, and security of the processes in an organization. Based on the knowledge of the project managers, it is easier to achieve the potential outcome of projects through the valid configuration of the ERP system, as well as how the customization of the system can appeal to the organizational culture and goals. The acquisition and implementation of the ERP system require the input of project management team to ensure that the budget, scope, and time get strictly followed. According to Lee and Yu, (2012) project management facilitates the processes and roles that provide for the clients' and stakeholders' interests. The timeline is observed and is realistic towards the project goals, budgeting is viable to accomplish the outcomes, and enhancement of communication on the success and mitigation of risks. The complicated relationship underscores the relationship between the effective and efficient understanding of project management and ultimate progress in the implementation of the ERP system. Project managers should also understand the software basics to facilitate the knowledge of possible discrepancies in the system.
Many companies treat ERP system application as a form of project management, based on different management functions and reorganizations involved. According to project management body of knowledge (PMBOK), projects und...
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