CHAPTER 3.0 METHODOLOGY3.0 IntroductionResearch methodologies are guidelines and activities that help to produce valid and reliable results. Though it is always pleasing to choose a methodology that maximizes precision, realism and general quality, all methods of research are somewhat not perfect in one way or the other. Creswell (2008) states that every single approach to research would not provide the information system with the richness that a discipline needs to develop. Furthermore, methodologies are in general the approach to the procedure of the research, from the theory part of the analysis and collection of data. De Vaus, (2001) states that like theories, methodologies can only be more or less useful but cannot be true or false. Thus, weaknesses and limitations sole to design are meant to exist in any particular proposed, and these, without a doubt, affect the interpretation and the information itself. By reviewing the literature on the ethical drivers that lead to organizational creativity, the study identified the criteria that should be in place for people to be creative in an organization, and whether corporate values and leadership promote a healthy culture. The chapter therefore, aims to discuss the research methodology implemented in the research and the considerations shaping it as well as to summarize some of the implications of the results of this study.
3.1: Research Approach
Research designs can be either quantitative, qualitative or a combination of both. To identify the criteria that enable employees to be creative in an organization, and whether organizational values and leadership promote a healthy culture, both quantitative and qualitative approaches were used in the research. A quantitative approach is essential in establishing statistical facts between variables. The research will analyze the survey by utilizing quantitative methodology in light of survey statistics and analysis to establish statistical facts on the strengths of the relations between variables Quantitative techniques may not be able to deliver exhaustive explanations available through qualitative methods, but the methods can be employed to determine the soundness and reliability of the variable measurement (Flick, 2015). Qualitative research takes an exploratory approach to undertaking a research study. It is more concerned with the opinions, the reasoning, and the motivations than the behavior that has been observed in that way. The researcher would likewise have the capacity to get the observations that the participants would have regarding the businesses and organization culture. By quantifying data and analyzing the data collected, the methods used had advantages that fit the research, for example it collected enormous data on individuals responding at one time. The survey-based approach is therefore adaptable and flexible for collecting data (Creswell, 2002).
3.3: Data CollectionThe procedure of collecting data is an essential constituent as it acts as the link between notable events that happen in real world situations on one hand and abstract conceptual thinking on the other. Primary data was used in data collection. For primary data collection, self-administered questionnaires was used as the survey-based methods for collecting data (Zhou, and Hoever, 2014). Thus the research used questionnaire survey for collecting primary data. This method was deemed suitable for collecting data in a relatively short period.
3.3.1: Instruments of Data Collection
The structure of the questionnaire plays an imperative task as an instrument of collecting data, in determining the quality of the data collected. Using a questionnaire allow researchers to distribute surveys to many respondents. Saunders, (2011) recommend that, when possible, researchers should use scales that have been tested as reliable indicators to overcome the validity problem. Therefore, all constructs in this study were measured using seven-point Likert scales with anchors strongly disagree (= 1) and strongly agree (= 7). Although having many advantages, the use of questionnaire had drawbacks, mainly regarding self-reporting. The researcher cannot control the accuracy of the responses of the sample subjects that may lead to misinterpretation because respondents misunderstand the questions which can create validity problems (Zhou, and Hoever, 2014).
3.3.2: Sampling method
Saunders, (2011) states that non-probability sampling is a technique where the selection of sampling units is based for the most part on the decision of the person who is researching. Non-probability sampling was used get the persons, with the obligation of equal opportunity of being included among the participants required. Although random sampling is preferred over non-probability sampling for the generalization of the finding, it was not a viable option for this study. The primary objective of this study is the criteria that should be put in place for people to be creative in an organization and the organizational values that can promote a healthy culture. For a general test purpose, not- probability sampling is considered as an acceptable method. Similarly, Misra and Singh, (2013) claimed that non-probability sampling is perfectly acceptable for research that has, as an objective regarding how particular variables relate to behavior. For the ethical reason, measuring respondents attitudes and perceptions through surveys as used in this study requires respondent consent. Additionally, a non-response bias check was conducted before analyzing the data.
3.4: Pilot Study
Bryman, (2006) insisted on the importance of holding discussions with cultural insiders and professional experts on the structure of a questionnaire and the content. A pilot study was conducted in the research to determine whether the structure of the composite questionnaire was appropriate, to establish whether questions wordings and the set-up were comprehensible to respondents and to verify that compilation of different questions caused and no additional problems into a single questionnaire (Zhou, and Hoever, 2014).
The participants in the pilot test included 100 respondents. Questionnaires were distributed to the pilot test participants; each participant was required to interpret the questions, to guarantee that the measure of the questions was comprehended in a manner favorable to predictable responses. They were also encouraged to comment on the questionnaire critically and to put in the picture any problems they could recognize if they are the respondents. All participants finished the questionnaire, and usable questionnaires and feedback forms were received. The feedback showed that the wordings and instructions were well understood. As no noteworthy modifications are required, a new pre-test was considered unnecessary, and the questionnaire was used to collect the data.
3.5: Data Analysis
Data were gathered and organized for analysis by considering the purpose and origin of the information. The data collected from every respondent were found to be individual cases and analyzed using SPSS (Statistical Package for the Social Science) to embrace the information examination and measure the variables (Pallant, 2010). Thus, the use of SPSS was instrumental in making a presentation of the information, which will make it easy to have the required prerequisites and the viewpoints that will be required at last. The study approach enables the data collected to reflect the expected outcomes and indicated a relationship founded on the study objectives. The research methods that were involved in the exposition were instrumental in improving the importance of the study items (DeVault, 2015). This further enabled the variables to be compared, and it gave credible data to assist in understanding the criteria that should be put in place for people to be creative in an organization, and how organizational values can promote a healthy culture. The study results were summarized into emergent concepts and data grouped to guarantee the analysis of the results (Robson and McCartan, 2016).
3.6: Research Validity and ReliabilityValidity is the degree to which the rating scale represents and what is required to yield the type of information required. Reliability involves consistency. Reliability and validity must be inspected in the questionnaire and should be carried out intensively for the collected data to be considered valid (Williams, May, Wiggins and Williams, 1996). Research recommends that the best solution is to verify the results by quantitative means (Baumgarten, 2013). Every study contributing to the theoretical advancement of a particular subject in an academic research must show reliability and validity (Shipman, 2014). From the above discussion, studies have validated the determinants of what should be put in place for people to be creative in an organization, and whether organizational values promote a healthy culture, adopted in this research makes it necessary to conduct reliability and validity analysis for the concepts. Thus, tests were performed to ensure that the constructs are valid to ensure validity and reliability of the analysis (Baumgarten, 2013). The scholarly works that were analyzed in the research showed evidence that the topic under study was relevant. Therefore, the results analysis were connected to the previous studies. The collected data were correlated with the findings of the study, thereby anticipating the study results. Thus the results were considered reliable.
3.7: Ethical Consideration
The research was essential in considering the ethical requirements of the study. In this research, ethics involves concepts beliefs, actions and is concerned with moral values and rules. By accessing the secondary sources, the copyrights and the legal procedures were preserved by recognizing authorship (Corey, Corey & Corey, 2014). A number of secondary material were use through the use of quotation guidelines and relevant citations. The disadvantages of the methodology of the research were addressed allowing no bias in the results. Thus, the study allowed for the protection of sensitive information in the literature.
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