For a long time, an anthropologist has engaged foreign or alien movements yet a minority of them has taken into account the fluid communities who have a belief in alien's presences and the sighting of UFOs and how the belief has affected their expressive and popular culture. The people who have contributed to ET culture have shown that there several of visitations that is, alien technologies, uncanny visions, and alien beings. From this line of arguments of those who have a notion that sci-fi is sci-fact, they have promoted anxieties that exist as results of modern technologies that are associated by alienation.
The authors of E.T culture have contributed to the unsettling of the boundaries between magic, science, and religion. The paper is discussing an overview of Richards's arguments, the specific examples of cases and how Richard made his arguments. Additionally, it addresses some convincing points put across and problems in understanding Richard Doyle's ideas (Duke University Press, 2005).
Richard first argued that the story of aliens existence is just rumored which are being spread by TV series. The TV programs have modified the image of aliens and given them the ability to speak, compatible with the space of their environment, liquids and aliens can bounce from major surface to other. Besides, since no anyone has witnessed the existence of aliens, it is clear that aliens are just rumors. For example, people can remember the first day they tasted orange sodas and first kiss, but no one has given testimony of encountering with an alien. However, technology has rebranded the image of aliens on films image, t-shirts, stickers and bongs that show the replications which cannot be true. Besides, aliens over the past period have transformed very fast more than anything on the surface of the earth, based on geological and scientific science this cannot be true hence opposes the existence of aliens (Duke University Press, 2005).
Aliens' existence came as results of transformation of the ecology of human beings. The transformation came along with the formation of artificial life which heavily relies on technologies. Due to well-connected networked technologies, unusual phenomena like believed to have existed. Alien's discovery came as the product of the incredible vision of human beings that gave a glimpse of aliens.
Richard later argues that though CNN and other TV stations have shown video and sound footage of aliens, the footage was the product of manipulation of videos which was used by media to modify known bodies heavily into unclear images and sounds that were proclaimed to be aliens. Richard gave an example of DJ spooky who can manipulate sounds into a stereophonic. Therefore, based on Richards's point of view, the existence of aliens is like a fiction movie which sounds and images are being manipulated (Duke University Press, 2005).
Richard also confirmed that alien existence is just one of the UFO rumors and the spreading story about alien abduction is being been narrated by UFOs community. He added that during that time the village was made up global gossips that circulated across the world. There was also a connecting tissue of rhetorical practices that lead to the formation of parallel images which are less communicative than the initially proclaimed alien that existed. Examples of an identical image that was formed are talismanic avatar or heuristic translation.
SThe ideas of parallel have been proven by Brian Rotman who was a mathematician a suggested that it is complicated to compute the exact time the aliens existed since it was believed that they lived some millions of years ago when they become extinct. Therefore, as far as computation logics exist there was no existence of aliens (Duke University Press, 2005).
Jung proposed that the plate figure of the UFO, while not thoroughly clarified as a mental issue, was, in reality, a mandala, a visual picture for the route and creative ability of totality. At the same time open furthermore, shut, the mandala offers a method for sorting out the vast assortment of the universe. Robert Thurman goes facilitate in his investigation of the Tibetan Buddhist arrangement of the mandala, contending that these structures offer nothing not precisely an ''engineering of edification,'' veritable media advances for the change of following subjects into the greatly parallel creatures and bodhisattvas of illumination. Maybe the self itself is such a symbol, a valuable handhold on the huge many-sided quality of recently opened up what's more, profoundly repetitive data. In this specific circumstance, one is a real channel, and additionally a ''figure,'' for sorting out the sudden anxiety of data (Duke University Press, 2005).
The author also has based his arguments based on molecular biology where he demonstrated that evolution of any beings is as results of the change of DNA structure; therefore, there is a possibility that aliens were created as a result of digital molecular technology hence there is a possibility the aliens they did not exist naturally. The author further illustrates this idea by use of Arnold Schwarzenegger whose body undergo a lot transformation due to genetically changing of structures of DNA. Biological logic has shown that evolution of DNA that occurs naturally takes a more extended period to reflect the physical changes and, with the physical image of aliens clearly show that the alien formation is a product of laboratory biological processes (Duke University Press, 2005).
From the Richards arguments, I have found that the discussion on aliens that they do not exist is the most convincing argument. Since the author has given evidence that the idea of the existence of aliens was just rumors being spread by UFOs communities. The author also added currently in the world no anyone witnessed the coming of aliens. People just believed that aliens existed on earth some million years ago, but no one has tangible evidence to confirm this statement. The existences of technology through image and sounds have been drafted to show how alien's appearance may look like as far as the story is concerned (Duke University Press, 2005).
Secondly, I found that aliens existed as a result of molecular biology but not naturalistic to be more convincing. With the available science and technology, it is possible for human beings to create something like an alien which is different from being and has natural powers. A good example is the digital molecular technology of cloning where the parent DNA of organism a copy is extracted to produce another similar body. However, the resulting product formed after cloning may slightly differ with the parent organism to changes involving chemicals process. Aliens are a product created in the laboratory after the process of cloning did not go as expected (Duke University Press, 2005).
Thirdly, I am also convinced with the statement that UFO communities have been propagating the rumors on the existence of aliens'. Logically it is possible if you believe in something that existence you have to defend it even if it's a lie. UFO believes in alien's existence and yet no one among them can scientifically prove their claim. However, with the available technologies and science, UFO communities have remodeled the sounds and images of the believed aliens. The modification given to aliens is as their body is grey with blue eyes. The graphics of aliens have appeared in t-shirts, tattoos and even on some vehicles and this has convinced a lot of people that the aliens existed which may not be the case (Duke University Press, 2005).
However, from the readings, I have encountered some challenges. The first problem I face is that is very difficult to comprehend and understand the computation used by Brian Rotman on determining the years taken for evolution to take place. Rotman used a lot of scientific complicated phrases like extraterrestrial intelligence in explaining how the available data collected can be used in determining the exact period of existence of organisms.
I feel that Rotman should use simple terms in explaining his concept so that even the regular people who are not familiar with scientific terms can read and understand (Duke University Press, 2005).
Secondly, the oversight I have read about dismissing some of the sounds and video footage captured by television stations like CNN as edited script have found it not convincing enough. Television bodies like CNN are one of the leading producers of accurate news and the fact that they may involve themselves in editing videos and plays them to the public is contrary to their ethical values. The developer of the claim has not given the tangible evidence that CNN edited the videos and sounds of aliens they shown some years back. Therefore, there is a high possibility the claims the writer made were empty and not valid. Furthermore, the videos may be proved that aliens did exist some years back (Duke University Press, 2005).
Generally, I think that the article did not give an overview of aliens and aliens abductions. I believe that the article should have given in details using simple words the concepts and ideas they are trying to put across. Furthermore, I think the author would have added more points on reasons why he thinks aliens did not exist instead of using only rhetorical questions in giving rights. However, the discussion would have completed if the author had clearly shown the difference between science, magic, religion, and culture (Duke University Press, 2005).
In conclusion, Richard came up with many arguments about the non-existence of aliens. Some of the cases he used in support of his ideas include, aliens existence are just rumors which are propagated by UFO communities; secondly, he added that there is no single person who has witnessed by coming face to face with aliens and lastly aliens was formed as a result of molecular biological processes that involved changing of DNA but not naturally existed as proclaimed by certain individuals. However, the writer had some weaknesses in supporting his ideas, some of his ideas like dismissing video footage that was captured by CNN did not give substantial evidence that CNN edited the video. Lastly, the use of scientific terms used in the computation of years taken for evaluation was very difficult to understand the concept used.
E.T. Culture Anthropology in Outerspaces | Books Gateway | Duke University Press. (2005). Retrieved from https://read.dukeupress.edu/books/book/981/E-T-CultureAnthropology-in-Outerspaces
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