Hacking theory reflects two contexts of technical abilities to program a computer system. Hackers often employ skills while engaging in criminal activity. The process integrates technical knowledge the process involves a skilled computer programmer associated with the popular culture of security hackers. Individuals who specialize in this area often use the skills to break into computer systems and cause possible harms. However, the rising cases of hacking cause harm to computer security due to high rates of malicious activities involved when pursuing such activities.
The social engineering skills employed by hackers vary depending on the type of harm being pursued. It encompasses malicious activities such as phishing, pretexting, tailgating, quid pro quo and baiting (Kam et al., 2018). Phishing is a process that allows hackers to seek the users' information, such as security numbers. The process uses links that redirect users to suspicious websites. Furthermore, the process incorporates threats that manipulate users to act fast. An example of this method is the recent case Google playbooks that were sent to the users. The command required them to install a suspicious file.
Pretexting is another social method often used by the scammers. It accesses personal users' information and sensitive data. The attackers achieve this process by manipulating a target user into accomplishing tasks that enhance their ability to restructure a specific computer system such as that of an organization (Booth, 2018). For this case, the attackers do not initiate fear and urgency on the users. Instead, they intend to create trust among its users. One of the examples of pretexting was an incident that involved a group of scammers that acted as representatives from a banking entity. They then modelled as agencies that would offer services similar to those provided by the banking representatives. The users engaged in long-term interaction to gained trust from the users. They involve the users in a question and answer interview the incidence was later used to access users personal banking details and hacking.
Baiting is a product or service used to lure users into buying something. It applies a similar process as that of phishing. Baiters use advanced skills to entice users by providing offers such as free software. Attacks of this nature involve a broader group of online users. An example is the case of Secure Network Technologies. The scammers offered USBs to the scammers to access the employee logins details.
Tailgating also pose a significant threat to different network on computer network users. For this case, the scammers set an impersonation of a delivery note. As a result, the employee sought security approval to open entrance for the hackers. They used tricks such as making an employee hold the door for them to access the company's information systems. However, the method only applies to small entities with fewer security strategies
The other method used by scammers is the Quid Pro Quo. The hackers promise gifts to the user on the condition that they provide a piece of information. For instance, they often spam call while acting as a representative of a particular company. They may promise a quick fix to a specific problem or offer any other IT service. However, the aim is to allow employees to disable sensitive programs such as AV in exchange for malware installation that often requires software updates.
Kam et al. (2018), highlight the current impact that hacking has had on the community and the entire organizational outlook. The tone of the message in the text is negative, although hacking could be viewed positively the rising rates of hackers have risen. Some of the reasons that the author provides are the increasing use of the internet presence of social media and the high standards of vulnerabilities noted with most of the computer system. Apart from this, some hackers employ the most advanced methods that are difficult to trace and addressing these problems from a single point of view is challenging. There is a need to offer the best protection measures to ensure that corporate information is protected.
The stigmatized image associated with the hacker is essential in developing appropriate stigma management. They are assumed to use their skills to cause harm to computer security systems. The issue has raised controversial views among the sociologist. The exact identity of a hacker is challenging to describe in terms of gender and social perspectives (Lee, 2018). To some extent, juvenile hackers are assumed to be issuing the activity as a source of fun, and perhaps they conduct such events out of curiosity. Moreover, the hacking has been perceived as a more natural way of making money, and this attracts unemployed and idle youths to commit serious offences associated with cybercrime activities.
The hackers exist in subculture for many reasons. However, there is a lack of evidence that provides specific reasons for the subculture. The labelling theory has then been used to explain some of these social norms. It suggests that mainstream culture has the power to create deviant behaviors through the specific social norm. The labels initiate violation of unspoken values.
Booth, J. (2018). Hacking and Hackerspaces. new formations: a journal of culture/theory/politics, 94(94), 180-182. Retrieved from: https://muse.jhu.edu/article/707061/summary
Kam, H. J., Menard, P., Ormond, D., & Katerattanakul, P. (2018). Ethical Hacking: Addressing the Critical Shortage of Cybersecurity Talent. In PACIS (p. 321). Retrieved from: https://aisel.aisnet.org/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1320&context=pacis2018
Lee, M. (2018). Crime and the Cyber Periphery: Criminological Theory Beyond Time and Space. In The Palgrave Handbook of Criminology and the Global South (pp. 223-244). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. Retrieved from: https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-65021-0_12
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