Acute Pharyngitis, commonly known as Pharyngitis, is a condition that causes swelling, pain, and a sensation of scratchiness around the throat region. It is widely known as a sore throat. The disease is caused by a viral infection, bacterial infection, or fungal pathogens. If Acute Pharyngitis lasts for more than a week or keeps reoccurring, it is referred to as Chronic Pharyngitis (Williams, 2013). Acute Pharyngitis is caused by a wide range of viruses or bacteria. More often than not, viruses that cause the common cold cause Acute Pharyngitis.
Several viral conditions that lead to Pharyngitis include Monocucleosis, Herpes simplex infection, common cold/flu, and measles and Enterovirus infection. These viruses are contagious and are mainly spread by mouth, nose discharge, or objects holding the virus. Streptococcus Phyogenes is the most common bacteria known to cause Pharyngitis (Williams, 2013). In Acute Pharyngitis, the virus directly attacks the pharyngeal mucosa causing an inflammatory response from the body. Also, if Rhinovirus and Coronavirus attack nasal secretions, they easily irritate the pharyngeal mucosa.
Acute Pharyngitis is a common condition that can easily be cured by Antibiotics. The doctor prescribes Amoxicillin 875 mg 1 tab every 12 hours for ten days to a 46-year-old woman suffering from acute Pharyngitis. Amoxicillin is an antibiotic used to treat different infections in adults and children (Lippe, n.d.). However, the dosage depends on the age and the part of the body infected. It is mainly used to treat Ear/Nose/Throat, upper and lower respiratory tract. Amoxicillin is used to treat rheumatic fever prophylaxis secondary to Streptococcus pyogenes in the 46-year-old Patient. Amoxicillin is the generic name, while the brand name is Amoxil or Moxilin. It belongs to the class of Penicillinase- Sensitive and Penicillin Antibiotics, and Dea Class Rx (Williams, 2013). The antibiotic is body friendly and rarely has any reactions with the human body. However, the side effects caused by the intake of Amoxicillin include vomiting, nausea, and diarrhea. Adverse side effects such as abdominal pains, yellowing of the eyes or skin, dark urine, persistent vomiting and nausea, high fevers, blood and mucus in the stool persistent sore throat and bleeding should call for emergency check with the doctor (Lippe, n.d.). Prolonged use of the drug can cause oral thrush or vaginal yeast infections (Castle, 2015). Medical attention may be required in case of adverse allergic reactions such as swelling in the mouth, severe dizziness, and breathing difficulties.
It is essential to be cautious of other drugs while using Amoxicillin to avoid drug interaction problems. Some medications such as Probenecid slow down the excretion of Amoxicillin from the body while other conditions may require two drugs to achieve the primary goal of taking medicine (Castle, 2015). Amoxicillin reduces the effectiveness of birth control pills and can easily cause pregnancy in women. In some cases, Amoxicillin alters lab test results. Therefore, it is essential to confirm with the doctor to avoid drug interactions (CDC, n.d.). In cases where Amoxicillin is not available, alternatively, the doctor can prescribe Oral Penicillin V for ten days to treat Acute Pharyngitis (Castle, 2015). The antibiotic is excellent in treating upper respiratory tract infections. The drug has adherence difficulties compared to Amoxicillin. However, ten days of therapy, effectively eradicates streptococcal Pharyngitis. Just like Amoxicillin, the drug is very affordable and available in many drug stores.
Health practitioners use different assessment methods to diagnose these conditions. More commonly, a physical examination is enough. However, clinical tests can be done to clarify the level of infection. Historical studies and Physical examination, on Acute Pharyngitis, includes understanding the environment surrounding the Patient, and the family history related to Pharyngitis (Castle, 2015). It also involves finding out the sensitivity level of headaches, swollen glands, and coughs. Other symptoms include high fevers of more than 38degrees Celsius and tonsils exudates. Diarrhea and coryza are common symptoms of viral Pharyngitis. The health practitioner needs to use palpation, auscultation, percussion, and inspect specific parts of the body to check for any signs.
Common signs and symptoms associated with Acute Pharyngitis, include swollen glands, dry, itchy sore throat, tonsils, and coughs. Notable pain while swallowing is a common sign too. Fatigue, fevers, and headaches may also be signs of these conditions. Congestion in the nasal passageways, mouth rash, and sneezing can signify the presence of the viral infection. Other symptoms of Pharyngitis, especially those associated with mononucleosis; include lack of appetite, abdominal pains, fatigue, and rash (Gehanno, 2013). Symptoms associated with bacterial Pharyngitis include headaches, swollen red tonsils, pain while swallowing, nausea, fatigue, presence of white patches at the back of the throat, and vomiting (Gehanno, 2013).
It is essential to check other underlying conditions that can cause Pharyngitis, such as Laryngitis, a condition that affects the voice box, which is positioned in the front part of the throat. Tonsillitis, a disease caused by bacteria or viral infection on the tonsils. A throat ulcer is a condition mainly caused by damage to the tissue lining in the throat, viruses, and acid reflux (Gehanno, 2013). These three conditions have similar diagnoses with Pharyngitis, hence they could be underlying conditions to Pharyngitis.
Signs and symptoms of these conditions dictate the treatment and care plan to be administered. Laboratory results equally help in confirming the level of infection. Usually, most patients suffering from Acute Pharyngitis feel relief within 24-48 hours of starting Amoxicillin or the recommended antibiotic (CDC, n.d). Also, gaggling salty water and the intake of oral fluids manage viral Pharyngitis. For example, a practitioner can recommend Amoxicillin dosage as stated above to the 46-year-old woman and offer advice to help prevent future occurrence of the same. The condition is also contagious. It is good to limit the sharing of most consumables, maintaining high levels of hygiene, and keeps the distance from people suffering from a similar condition.
Often, patients care has several issues related to culture or ethics. The major cultural problem associated with the above patient care is the lack of cultural diversity. It was a significant challenge getting a health practitioner from a different culture to attend to the 46-year-old Patient. She had no respect for young practitioners and only respected those equal to her age. However, the challenge was addressed by handling the Patient accordingly with respect, empathy, and eventually got her to see a doctor and take medication. Trained nurses can treat patients from different backgrounds to promote good quality health practices equality. According to the nine provisions of the Nursing Code of Ethics, it is evident in regulation six that, a nurse should improve the ethical environment of the work setting and promote quality health care (Code of Ethics for Nurses, n.d) Implementing this provision, improved communication, and health care to the patients considering a doctor attended to her and prescribed proper medication.
Health care has become one of the most expensive and unaffordable services to many in the contemporary world. According to Lippe, the unaffordability of health care services is one of the potential barriers in healthcare. The facilities have become too expensive for many people. Many patients suffer financial constraints for health services. Rich people only access Unavailability, some of these medical services. The centers are minimal. Therefore, patients lack funds to access the facilities. According to the Social Determinants of Health, age, finances, and living healthy are examples of determinants of social health. Patients who have access to funds receive the best medical care services, in the best facilities available (Gehanno, 2013). They receive quick services, unlike those with limited finances.
Another social determinant to health is age; people below the age of 30 have healthy bodies prone to fighting infections compared to people in the advanced age bracket. Often they take time to heal after falling sick. Mode of living is a significant social determinant of health. People who practice healthy living face health challenges such as lifelong medical conditions compared to those who do not. Health Care equality to all patients is one of the significant policies that positively impact potential barriers to social determinants of health. It is essential to equalize health care services by making them available for people of all classes and ages. According to the Code of Ethics, all nurses must equally attend to all patients regardless of their economic status, age, financial situation, or social status (Code of Ethics for Nurses, n.d). These encourage healthcare equality to everyone
The essay is primarily based on Acute Pharyngitis. What is Acute Pharyngitis, pathophysiology, causes, diagnoses, treatment, and pharmacology of Amoxicillin? Different articles and websites, as cited in the reference page, have been used to achieve the information and decisions written in the above essay. Acute Pharyngitis is a common condition commonly known as a sore throat. It is east to contract it while sharing consumables with an infected person. Medical practitioners must use both physical and clinical examinations to diagnose the condition. Amoxicillin, an antibiotic in the Class of Penicillinase- Sensitive, is used to treat Pharyngitis. All health practitioners must handle all their patients equally and fairly. Regardless of their social status, they should work to improve quality health and quality services in the hospitals. Patients should be guided on the best way to live healthy to avoid lifelong conditions and infections such as Acute Pharyngitis. This can easily be avoided by maintaining high levels of hygiene.
Williams, P. W. (2013). Acute And Chronic Pharyngitis. Diseases of the Upper Respiratory Tract, 6(5), 71-89. doi: 10.1016/b978-1-4831-6710-7.50011-x
Castle, S. S. (2015). Amoxicillin. XPharm: The Comprehensive Pharmacology Reference, 9(2), 1-6. doi: 10.1016/b978-008055232-3.61222-x
Gehanno, P. (2013). Diagnosis and Management of Suppurative Complications of Streptococcal Pharyngitis. Streptococcal Pharyngitis Issues in Infectious Diseases, 54(5), 95-102. doi: 10.1159/000076219
Code of Ethics for Nurses. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.nursingworld.org/practice-policy/nursing-excellence/ethics/code-of-ethics-for-nurses/.
Lippe, M. (n.d.). 3 Common Barriers to Quality Medical Care. Retrieved from https://www.careatc.com/ehs/3-common-barriers-to-quality-medical-care.
Social Determinants of Health | CDC. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/.
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