Definition and Causes

Published: 2020-04-27 10:39:55
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Learning disabilities refer to a group of disorders that are due to an identifiable or inferred central nervous disorder. They are exhibited by delays in early development or hardships in any of the following areas: reasoning, memory, communicating, co-ordination, spelling, calculation (New Brunswick Department of Education, 1999). The causes of learning disabilities include brain injury, minimal brain dysfunction, and dyslexia.

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Poor listening and memory

Immature speech

Short attention span

Slow reading and writing

Difficulty recalling what is read

Frequent spelling errors

Poor eye coordination problems

Distractible, impulsive or restless

Disorganization and poor time management ...among others.

Every child is required to listen, speak, and write in class. Children with this disability, however, have problems learning with normal children because they cannot concentrate or listen for long without getting distracted. They cannot also read or write well or even remember for long and correctly, what was told to them.

Oregon State Eligibility Criterion

A child CITATION Jer \l 1033 (Wells):

Must not attain sufficiently for their age, the Oregon grade-level standards in one or more of the following learning areas: basic reading, reading fluency, reading comprehension, mathematics calculation or problem-solving, written, oral, or listening expression

The disability ought to have a negative effect on their school performance.

The child must also be in need of special education because of that disability.

Emotional and Behavioral Disorder

Definition and Causes

This is a disorder associated with excesses, deficits, or disturbances of behavior. A childs problem is emotionally based and cannot be adequately explained health, cultural, intellectual or other factors CITATION Reg13 \l 1033 (Stoutjesdijk, 2013).

The actual cause of this disorder is not known though several factors have been suggested and include brain disorder, heredity, stress, diet, and dysfunctional families.


The inability to form or maintain interpersonal relations with peers and or teachers

The inability to learn not because of health, intellectual or other factors

Consistent inappropriate emotions under normal situations

Feelings of unhappiness or depression

A tendency to develop physical symptoms such as pain, unreasonable fears, or anxiety.

Many children suffering from this disorder perform poorly because they find themselves not liking their teachers and cannot thus pay attention to them in class. Their emotions also keep distracting them.

Oregon State Eligibility Criterion

A child must manifest one or more of five listed characteristics over a long period of time and to a marked measure. The child must also require special education because of that disability.

Teacher Practices

Teachers must create positive relationships with parents of children with learning disabilities so that pertinent information is shared between them when such children are joining school, or when either of them begins noticing any symptoms of the disability. This might help in early detection and treatment, or so that a teacher can begin giving more attention to them so that they do not lag in their education.

Teachers should share any observations they make concerning a child who might be having a disability with other teachers so that they can all give more attention to that child.

Inclusion Opportunities

Teachers should not teach children with learning disabilities together with other children because such need more attention.

They should, however, be allowed to play together but under the supervision of a teacher.

Teachers should also explain to other children what learning disabilities are and how they should treat such children, for instance, they should be patient with them.

Teachers ought to be educated and constantly reminded on how to identify learning disabilities and handle children with such disabilities.


New Brunswick Department of Education. (1999). Resource for Identification and Teaching of Students with Specific Learning Disability. Fredericton: New Brunswick.

Stoutjesdijk, R. (2013). Children with emotional and behavioral disorders in special education: Placement, progress, and family functioning. Ridderkerk: Ridderprint BV.

Wells, J. (n.d.). IDEA Eligibility Categories. Retrieved from Oregon Department of Education:

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