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Disarmament, demobilization and reintegration (DDR) refer to postwar programs of repossession of weapons, calling back ex-soldiers and integrating them back to the civilian community. Post-conflict reconstruction or rebuilding, whose purpose DDR serves, is led meant to foster peace, reconciliation, and understanding among the warring nations. These efforts are led mainly by the United Nations (UN), some particular Non-governmental organizations as well as some joint programs formed by the regional governments of the conflict countries. While these programs are utilized in war-prone nations like the middle eastern countries such as Afghanistan and Iraq, the majority have been used in Africa, especially North Africa and then Somalia. Since 1992, a total of twenty-four DDR programs have been used in Africa alone. The efficiency of these programs and the rate at which the related objectives are achieved have not gone smoothly in the past, and that is why new guidelines were drafted in 2005 (Schnabel and Born, 2011). Previously, DDR initiatives in Liberia and Somalia have failed to lead to the new changes which were established to refocus the mandates and objectives to fit the prevailing conditions in those countries. Various policy makers, practitioners, research committees and donors were summoned by Inter-Agency Working group, a UN body associated with DDR. They worked on the guidelines that were borrowed from past failures of the DDR initiative. Most war-affected countries have joined forces with the neighbouring countries to restore peace and reconciliation that can set a good environment for development. Similarly, security sector reform (SSR) also initiated by the UN, was created to ensure that all the member states conduct their affairs to meet the rule of law present in each individual countries. SSR is mandated with the responsibility of strengthening security and justice institutions which are responsible for providing or upholding human needs and rights. The body seeks to improve security and safety of all human beings by keeping security firms and institutions in check to ensure they are accountable and effective. This means that the institutions have to operate as required by the rule of law and the human rights requirements failure to which they face scrutiny and accountability consequences. The DDR and SSR relate in various ways affecting the operations of each other in various capacities since the two operate under the UN body(United States Institute of Peace, 2010).. Through the same vein, peace and security which are the overall objectives are affected in some way.
The DDR and SSR are interrelated and mutual regarding reinforcing most objectives which the two share in war-affected nations. When they work together, the two bodies can ensure that the countries in which they operate are capable of not only handling well their own security but also conduct their affairs through the constitutional means. One of the major objectives that the two bodies share is the need to uphold the rule of law in such countries. This aim is to maintain the monopoly of a nation to its constitutional frames and not to deviate no matter the circumstances. In most war-affected countries, certain individuals in positions of influence have sought to go against the law on numerous occasions resulting in prolonged conflicts, fights, political disruptions, and deaths. This means that a country controlled by nonstate armed individuals cannot protect its citizens, hence the need to involve bodies like the SSR and DDR to restore statutory forces (United States Institute of Peace, 2010). To combat such effects, DDR and SSR plan, implement and evaluate their objectives and resources in a manner that propagates what the rule of law proposes. In this manner, they either fail or succeed together. The reintegration phase mostly acts as the major point of intersection of these bodies especially in situations which ex-combatants or ex-militias get back into the civilian life. The common scenario is that most of these returnees get employment in the security organs and institutions created by the SSR. They get employed as policemen or security personnel. This exit strategy is meant to assist the returnees to blend well with the civilian society while also continuing the responsibility of providing safety through their rich experiences in the field. The costly peacekeeping and security missions are vital for sustainable development in any country.
Another relation that exists between the two bodies is that they are programmatically linked in such a way that the success of one translates into the success of the other and vice versa. In any circumstance that the ex-combatants and ex-militias are not well integrated back into the society via the DDR, SSR can be compromised. The most likely outcomes of this compromise can result in the formation of new gangs, cartels or militias who can take arms and begin to terrorize the countries again. Such situations might be difficult to control as the newly established security institutions might not have the necessary experience and means to bring the situation back to normalcy. When that happens, chaos and political quagmire can potentially threaten people's lives, worsening their vulnerability and if that nation cannot deal with such security concerns, its legitimacy becomes tainted. After this occurrence, the bodies will have failed in their goals. If the programs are well programmed, the success follows, and no threats are experienced.
The good interrelation between DDR and SSR is directly linked to mutual trust among former war enemies thereby influencing each either parties to down their tools and weapons of war so that they can fortify good understanding and be peace-loving civilians. This can be a smooth process when the ex-combatants are made to understand that they will have an active role to play in the new government. Without a better transition process, the returnees may as well seek to be part of organized crime gangs or malicious private security firms which can allow them to carry such weapons under legal terms but use them in violence. One highly likely situation that might occur after that is the reformation of new war parties controlled by new individuals some of which might seek a license to apply force in their operations.
The DDR is responsible for the overall assessment of ex-combatants including background checks, criminal records as well as whether or not they meet the minimum requirements for them to qualify for integration in the SSR. Through this role, the DDR get to entangle itself with the SSR in a manner that should be as effective as possible lest undesirable consequences occur. Also, a correct implementation of both DDR and SSR promotes economic growth, development, stability, security and peace. Despite the fact that the reintegration process takes a long time, courses and training related to it are offered for shorter periods.
The manner in which DDR and SSR affect each other is closely related to the nexus or the linkages that exist between the two. Conflicts have rocked the operations of the two bodies with regards to the agendas of each, issues of collaboration between the specialists from both sides, and the strained relationship among members from both sides of the divide. The operation and evolvement of both DDR and SSR have been independent over the years yet both meet at various stages of the planning and implementation processes of their programs. This synergy led to conflicts which negatively influenced the operation of either of the organs. It led to the commissioning of a new module or version of means of relation in 2009. The new form of relationship was named IDDRS, which refers to Integrated Disarmament, Demobilization and Reintegration Standards. The new standards emphasized on information sharing for reduced cost of planning, creating a demobilization-reintegration link with national security policies, and linking police and military integration with SSR (Schnabel and Born, 2011).
The DDR affects the SSR in that the latter depends on the former for assessing and running background checks on individuals before they can be declared as qualified for national security services. Under the new standards, this vetting is done by military reintegration programmes (MRPS) and also plays a major role in the prevailing political configuration. The same strategy was also used in various countries involved in civil wars, to negotiate peace deals. This synergy is crucial in gathering information and intelligence for the individuals who have been demobilized (Dyck, 2016).
Owing to the close relationship that exists between DDR and SSR, disagreements regarding mandates and responsibilities can slow down the achievement of the overall goals of each. Little collaboration that existed between SSR and DDR specialists negatively impacted the effectiveness of their outcomes. However, sharing or information and support among international peacekeeping agencies have enhanced the good practice of governance and human rights (Dyck, 2016).
The effect of both DDR and SSR on each other can also be well understood when the two are put into the correct political context. For instance, the international support to the government of Liberia led to a positive outcome as far as the objective of security, peace and statutory means of law are concerned. The contribution of internal actors and those who are close to the people should be felt.
The impacts of DDR on SSR can also be noted during the situations in which both parties develop different perspectives on what number or type of ex-combatants should be mobilized, and what number of type to retained. When the programming situations that arise from both DDR and SSR seem to favour the soldiers returning to the community than the civilians, then specific imbalances might occur regarding security, and this may result in the disruption of peace and order.
There are certain dilemmas that both the SSR and the DDR face that make their installation and operation challenging. For SSR, forming new formidable national security institutions in post-conflict situations requires a massive overhaul from personnel to how things work. But some of those who might spearhead these changes are often tainted by past involvement in the processes war crimes and violations of human rights and therefore need to be reprimanded, and new people be given such opportunities. Even though a proposed tabula rasa approach is employed in the process, whereby the past is buried, undermines the integrity of the new security firms when they begin to operate. The proposed transformation of the institutions, rather than dissolution, is a way through which such malicious individuals get back to the new institutions to corrupt the systems. The new reform programs of the security institutions are often sacrificed in ways that old legacies can find their way back hence compromising the legitimacy of the new institutions (Brzoska, 2006). Political and societal winds are not always easy to overcome despite major international interventions. Dissolution of all political parties should be the better means of dealing with this dilemma.
Some internal actors with motives have been found to react negatively to the peacekeeping efforts by police, international groups and non-governmental organizations. This passive behaviour from the domestic actors and bodies, besides exploiting the international organizations, undermines the efforts to strengthen security and enforce the rule of law in the war-affected regions. The domestic players should be receptive and supportive of security sector reforms as the contents of such reforms have undergone international tutelage (Brzoska, 2006). The best way that...
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