Crusades and Islamic Sicily, Free Annotated Bibliography Sample

Published: 2022-05-17
Crusades and Islamic Sicily, Free Annotated Bibliography Sample
Type of paper:  Essay
Categories:  History Christianity
Pages: 5
Wordcount: 1200 words
10 min read

Britt, Karen C. "Roger II of Sicily: Rex, Basileus, and Khalif? Identity, Politics, and Propaganda in the Cappella Palatina." Mediterranean Studies 16 (2007): 21-45.

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Britt discusses Hugo Falcandus who most of the scholars believe concealed the identity of one Norman Sicily court member who had enough personal knowledge of the King's activities. He described the King to have natural gifts and a man with high vitality. Furthermore, the king has strong intellect and confidence in that he replied everything immediately. He is also regarded as know it all. The article is important in my paper because it also assesses the role which was played by Sicily during the Rule of Norman Dynasty. Sicily had the mentality, motivation, and cultural milieu like the first king Norman Sicily which helped him rule efficiently. The article also discusses the way Roger II made Pope Honorius II invest in him with Apulia duchy. Although he thought the move was good, it only increased enmity of the church towards him. After recognizing the situation and the necessity of strengthening his position, he cast his lot with Analectus II who was the new pope. The pope granted him the king's title by exchanging his fealty oath. However, his assumption on the royal power was rejected by the emperors in west and east and pope. The new king further utilized every means he had to legalize his kingship elevation. He did this through his advisors, and Roger II adopted a strategy that made papacy irrelevant. The chief advisors of Roger II including George and Christodoulou played a significant role in establishing the kingdom's administration by crafting Norman kingship image. All the people who are involved in recognizing a new kingdom that would not be invented. Therefore, the article is significant as it has information regarding the information required in my final paper.

Chevedden, Paul E. "A Crusade from the First": The Norman Conquest of Islamic Sicily, 1060-1091." Al-Masaq 22, no. 2 (2010): 191-225.

According to the myths of crusades, Pope II is regarded as the founding father. However, during the 20th Century, English, Spanish, and French scholars opposed the might. The myth remains durable even with the opposition brought by the scholars. The origin of crusading issue commenced between 1095 and 1102 where it was associated with First Crusade. The scholars, on the other hand, consider the first crusade as being triptych's third part. The first one was Sicily conquest by Norman; Catalan and Castilian advancements in Iberia, and 1095 Crusade. The article is significant in my research paper as it discusses the Crusade of Norman in Sicily as it draws both Islamic and Christian sources. Crusades developed a story over the increase of church leadership position in the war that involved the Islam because of progressive Europe territorial retreat neglected the responsibilities to St Peter's while it defends Christendom in contradiction of the Islam. Additionally, the German empire was unable to fulfill the traditional obligation of defending Christendom from the external enemies. Moreover, the rule of Christians and restoration of the Holy church played a significant role in Sicily. The objectives also commenced in 1059 during the Norman-papal alliance which established a new political foundation basing on the independence and sovereign freedom of the churches. The Church freedom with the existing sovereign exercise with papal and papacy installation as lands were lost to the Islam. The Norman chronicles were important in Sicily. The included God's will, God's work, Christ as Crusade leader, papal participation, crusade indulgence, the liturgical readiness of battle, religious war, battling for Christendom, and unfolding the definition of the crusade. Therefore, the spirit of a crusader permeates Norman's narrative over the Sicilian crusade. The article also reveals that Norman conviction was supported and sanctioned by God.

Egerton, Frank N. "A History of the Ecological Sciences, Part 8. Frederick II of Hohenstaufen: Amateur Avian Ecologist and Behaviorist." Bulletin of the Ecological Society of America 84, no. 1 (2003): 40-44.

The article discusses Fredrick II who was raised in Sicily. Roger II was Constance's (Fredrick II mother) father, and he was interested in Geography. Additionally, he assembled scholars from different places in his court. At Sicily, Fredrick did not have playmates, and this made him have an interest in both wild and domestic animals. Fredrick associated with people from several diversities including Moslems, Jews, Germans, and Greeks because Sicily was a cosmopolitan. It is through his interaction with different people that he realized the Christians do not have a monopoly on wisdom even though his concentration in religion was political and not spiritual. Fredrick II fought against Papacy that feared he might unite Italian kingdom and German. He really enjoyed hunting, and in this, he hunted with falcons who are trained. The knowledge of falcon includes applied avian biology and hunting technology. The advantages that Fredrick got from studying birds include mastering the subject and actively collecting facts while he hunts. The article goes ahead to explain the way Fredrick executed the alleged state and church enemies. Alternatively, the few individuals who sacrificed for science were not different and particularly if the men condemning the execution are subjects. The book is important in my final paper at some point because it explains what Fredrick loved which is hunting and the way he did it. However, the article does not explain how Fredrick II connected both the Muslims and Christians It explains the life of Fredrick II since he was born and when he died.

Travaini, Lucia. "The Normans between Byzantium and the Islamic World." Dumbarton Oaks Papers 55 (2001): 179-196.

Scholars have advised that terms such as propaganda, borrowing, and influence should be used with care. The reason is that they play an important role in Norman practice and thinking. Norman Italies include Lombard, Byzantine, French, and Muslim and each one of them has its monetary tradition which is well documented in the charters. Every tradition is different from the other, and this confirms their uniqueness. There are also different frontiers that are mobile and existed in an 11th and 12th century. In the 11th century, it was difficult to find Byzantine gold coins, and the reason is that Tari of flexible use and lower value were the acceptable and main currency in the area. Byzantine Calabria also used Silicon Taris before the conquest of Norman. Therefore, a gold denomination like Tari was an important coin which flourished the economy, and it can be evident through the provision of monuments like sculptures during that time and Romanesque churches. In the Islamic world, monetary exchanges are referred to as Geniza documents. Sicilian coins were also recorded in the world of Muslim even though some coins of William II and William I was found in Tyre, Caesarea, and Maritima which shows the connection between Seljuk and Norman Sicily. Furthermore, the cross cult in Europe and medieval Italy was important due to its strong revival in 11th and 12th centuries linked to increased pilgrimages and crusades. In the two centuries coins were regarded as magical objects and icons which needs collaboration among historians and numismatists. The article is important in my final paper as it discusses the economy of both the Christians and Islam. It also discusses the different types of currencies that were used in Sicily during the 11th and 12th century.

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