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Counting is an essential element of math. It is the foundation of the basic concepts of math. Counting in preschool helps students acquire basic math concepts fundamental for their academic growth. In the lesson, the students will practice counting of numbers from 0 to 20 by the use of manipulative. The students will learn to pair the respective numbers by using correct number of objects. The counting process centers around work and school activities that improve preschool student's concentration on math. It focuses on the work and school activities designed and conducted by the teachers or instructors to enhance the student's performance and consistency on math.
Students do the following activities:
Work in groups to conduct number recognition of 1 to 20
Work with different partners to count various objects from 0 to 20
Students will match different objects to form correct numbers
Perform simple addition tasks
Work as a group to solve word problems focusing on subtraction, multiplication, addition and pure fractions.
Discuss how to solve counting problems
Comparing sizes and differentiating different patterns
Work in groups to mix colors and match different numbers
Materials and Preparation
Overhead projectors with pens and transparencies
Dice per every student
Six apple seeds for every student
Printed apple pictures for every student
Photo shoots of numbers 0 to 20
Six cupcake liners for every student
21 buttons for every student
Gather all the students and let them seat in a circle on the classroom floor. Get the student's attention by introducing the rolling dice, apple seeds, and cup liners. You explain to the students the use of every material and how it helps in counting process. The lesson begins by the teacher telling the students they will be practicing counting. Deliberately conduct the counting process by using the dice, apple seeds and the cup liners. Model how to use the materials by displaying the process again using two or three students. Lay down the rest of the students as the two or three students repeat the process. The lesson begins by the teacher telling the students they will be practicing counting. It then follows by rolling different dice and determines the numbers that appear. Every student listens carefully, and the student with the number stands up in front of the entire class. The teacher asks the students if they can write the number appearing on the dice. One student then writes the number on the chalkboard. The teacher rolls the dice severally depending on the number of the students. If the students are twenty, the dice rolls twenty times. It provides opportunity for every student to stand up and write the different numbers on the chalkboard.
The teacher provides each student different pictures of apples. The teacher also provides the students with small cups containing apple seeds. Teacher also gives each student a dice used during the counting process. The students now roll the dice by themselves and identify the numbers that appear on the dice. The teacher places a given number of apple seeds on the small cup. He then explains to the students to repeat the entire process. The students also put the correct number of seeds on the bowl of apple. The teacher walks around the room as the students commence the activities as explained by the teacher. It helps the teacher in guaranteeing that the students are doing the correct set of events as earlier described.
Determining the Student's Special Needs
The teacher assesses the student's individual needs by observing and interacting with the students. Special needs of the students differ based on the culture and background. The teacher identifies the best learning styles of every student. It helps in determining the weaknesses and strengths of the students. The teacher also identifies the emotional and social issues of the students. The teacher recognizes such special needs by asking the students questions and interacting with the student's parents. The determination of every student's health occurs through determinationobservation of the student's behaviors. Students with poor health status are gloomy, less active and do not interact well with others in classrooms. The development levels of the also help in providing the best learning approaches for the students. The teacher determines the difference in the development level of the students by observing the changes in the student's performance. It helps the teachers in handling the students differently. It also assists the teachers determine the students potential and the students requiring re-teaching process to grasp all the math concepts taught in class.
Cardinality and Counting
After the teacher introduces the numbers and identifies the student's unique needs, he determines whether the students know the number sequence and the number names. Teacher instructs the students to count and tell the number of the objects used in the process. The teacher educates the students to count and say to the number of the various objects used. Teacher also guides the students to compare the numbers and determine the difference between the numbers. The teacher helps the students understand addition as an aspect of adding something to the other. Teacher also helps the students understand subtraction as a means of taking some elements away from something. The students also understand the elements and components of simple patterns used in mathematics.
Counting to tell the number of objects
Students connect cardinality and counting. The student understands the relationship between quantities and amounts from 0 to 20. The teacher says the number names in a standard order when counting. The students pair the different objects with each other and provide only one name. The student also matches the objectives and the respective numbers. The student understands that name tells the number of every object used in class. The student also recognizes that the objects have same numbers. The teacher also determines if the student understands and identifies the figures and objects irrespective of the order and arrangement of the numbers and objects. The teacher also helps the students learn that every successivenumber is the more significant number. Arrange different objects in a line and let the students count to determine how many the objects are. Arrange the objects in a rectangular, circular or triangular way.
The teacher guides the students to play particular games that aid in number recognition skills. The teacher begins by board games to help students develop logical, vocabulary and number recognition techniques. Board games help the preschool students adapt to learning. For example, the teacher instructs the students to make numbers such as ten, eleven and to make fish. The students then use the boards to make numbers from zero to twenty. The students also use cards to make the numbers in pairs. Playing cards is one of the most essential games that help the students acquire number recognition skills. The games help students learn the arithmetic facts and skills needed in mathematics. Teacher also asks students questions such as "what two numbers make ten." It helps in identifying the children who have not mastered the additional facts. Games helps the students welcome the learning atmosphere. For example, the teacher tells the students to make nine and eight. It evokes the intrinsic entertainment values of the students.
Teacher now gives every student cupcake liners with different numbers written on the cupcakes. Instruct every student to place on every liner the correct amount of buttons. Check the work of every student. Determine the students who best understand and follows the instructions. Instruct the student to stand and explain using the chalkboard the specific elements the teacher required and how he placed the numbers correctly on the liners. The students first start by putting the numbers from one 1 to 10. The teacher determines those who correctly put the whole numbers. Explain and correct those who did not follow the instruction thoroughly and ensure they correctly place the numbers. After every student place the numbers from 1 to 10, the teacher instructs them to continue from 11 to 15. Each student again sets the numbers correctly on the liners from 11 to 15. The same process repeats to enable the teacher determine the students with challenges fixing the numbers. The teacher then explains to the students again and instructs them to do the correction. Walk throughout the class and ensure every student puts the numbers correctly. Instruct the students to continue with the same by putting the numbers from 16 to 20 on the remaining liners. Conduct the same procedure of determining the students with the challenges putting the numbers. Assist those experiencing challenges and ensure all the students are places all the numbers from 0 to 20. The teacher can also start the students with difficulties by focusing on the specific numbers such as 3 to 9 by mimicking the numbers as they appear on the dice.
Independent Working Time
Have the entire student seat and concentrate in class. Each student should sit on the respective table spots. Provide each student with the counting materials. Explain again the counting process to every student and instruct each student to conduct the same on his or her own. Each student must have a dice, equal pieces of apple and liner. Walk around the class and determine the progress of every student. Go through the work of every student at a time and provide help where necessary. It helps in motivating the students and making them learn the ease and process of counting the numbers. It also helps the students master the numbers. It increases the confidence of the students.
The assessment process is focuses on the correctness of the apple seed and the counting button. The teacher determines how correct the students place the apple seed on the liner and how right the counting button is. The assessment also involves observing the behavior of every student during the counting process. Carefully interact with every student to determine if they understand every concept as explain earlier. Take note of the strengths and weaknesses of the students. Identify the students who hesitate and spend extra time with such students re-teaching them the same concepts. It helps in achieving the balance of the class. It also helps in increasing the student's levels of self-esteem. Re-teaching the weak students during the extra time at personal level creates a strong bond between the students and the teachers. The teacher also watches the other students in class complete the counting assignments. Teacher gives tasks based on the concepts learned in quality to the students, and each student conducts the duty under the watch of the teacher. Teacher also offersotherassignmentsare also provided to the students as a homework, which they do while at home. The students practice the homework with the help of the parents and the guardians. The teacher collects the student's worksheet at the end of the assignment's stipulated date and time. The teacher checks and marks each of the student's work to determine accuracy before returning the worksheets to every student.
Post Lesson Reflection
Teacher analyses the strengths and weaknesses of every teaching process used in class. Teacher determines the best approach by identity and comparing the performance of the students. The method that leads to high level of performance from the students are the best recommended for future engagements. The teacher also reflects on the behavioral changes among the students and the changes in student's performance. The teacher then suggests improved and better pl...
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