Constantine the Great ruled as the Roman emperor at the onset of the fourth century. He was born as Flavius Valerius Constantinus on February 280 CE of Flavius Valerius Constantius and his Helena. The elevation of his father to deputize Emperor Maximian in the Western Empire, saw Constantine sent to Diocletian, then Eastern Roman emperor. Living in the Diocletian court allowed him to learn in Latin and Greek. Constantine joined his father who became Emperor Constantius I following the abdication of Maximian in 305. They fought together until his death at York. His troops would declare Constantine emperor though had to fight to officiate the designation against three men heading three quadrants established under the Tetrarchy. In 312, he fought Maxentius and his father Maximian at Milvian pledging to Christianity in his triumph. As such, he ordered the painting of Christian emblem on the shields they used to trump resistance then becoming the Western Roman emperor successfully.
Constantine proclamation as the Western Roman emperor legalized Christianity. The issuance of Edict of Milan by Constantine in 313 brought freedom of worship in the Empire. He allowed Licinius rule the East, though they would remain rivals surviving on uneasy truces. The animosity between the two culminated in Chrysopolis Battle where Constantine triumphed over Licinius to become sole Emperor in 324 A.D. He reunited the empire and established Constantinople City. He expanded the city and established additional fortifications alongside chariot racing hippodrome and temples. However, Constantine adhered to the Christianity faith and influenced to end religious conflicts. Also, he summoned the church officials to the Nicaea Council in 325 not wanting to sow discord over Christ's divine nature. The convention bore the Nicene Creed affirming Jesus' divinity.
Emperor Constantine reforms sought stability and strength to the regime. Firstly, he reorganized the army to stem emergent resistance. The reorganization allowed him to face Visigoths and Sarmatians tribes. As sole emperor, Constantine reformed the financial, social and administrative units. The separation of civil administration from military authorities allowed Constantine reorganize the Roman army. He founded the mobile field units to counter internal threats and garrison soldiers to counter barbarian invasions. The introduction of Solidus being a gold coin enabled the empire combat inflation. The gold coin would become the standard currency for Byzantine and European region for over a thousand years. His successful campaigns against the tribes located to the Roman Empire frontiers saw him resettle territories abandoned following the Third Century crisis.
Constantine introduced dynastic succession to replace the Diocletian's tetrarchy. His administrative approach earned him a prototype to restore imperial legitimacy. Not only did he protect Christians from persecution but permitted freedom of worship. He became the first Roman emperor to profess Christian faith and offered financial assistance to the church. He built the church such as the Old Saint Peter's Basilica and Holy Sepulchre Church. In 321 he replaced the pagan gods imprint on coinage and instead used Christian symbols. He disliked religious disputes and instead prioritized societal stability and upheld the ecclesiastical unity. Constantine reformed the law to repeal the harsher policies targeting Jews. However, he illegalized the Jewish attack on those who converted to Christianity. Constantine fell ill as he prepared a campaign against Persia. His health deteriorated and headed to the Holy Apostles Church where he identified as his resting place. He summoned the clergy and asked Bishop Eusebius of Nicomedia to baptize him, fulfilling his wishes in River Jordan. He died a baptized after the 337 Easter.
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