Psychology refers to the study of the mind and social behaviour of a person or human being, which uses the principle of understanding individuals and groups by researching on specific cases (Fernald, 2008). Psychologists are professionals who study the cognitive attributes of individuals and analyse their general performance. They try to study and understand the role of mental functions in an individuals cognitive attributes and also looks at physiological and essentially biological processes that are critical for individuals general behaviours. Psychologists explore concepts like; perceptions, brain functioning, personalities, attention, emotion, intelligence and interpersonal relationships (ONeil et al, 2008).
Psychologists use various methods to ensure causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. There are different specialities in the field of psychology which are recognised internationally. They include clinical neuropsychology, school psychology, clinical psychology, forensic psychology, family psychology, police and public safety psychology, sleep psychology, counselling psychology, behavioural and cognitive psychology, clinical child psychology, Professional Geropsychology, industrial-organisational psychology, psychoanalysis in psychology and clinical health psychology (Jules, 2014).
My interest is based on two major specialities in psychology, which are family psychology and school psychology.
1. School Psychology
This refers to a field in psychology that employs the principle of educational psychology, developmental psychology, clinical psychology, community psychology and applied cognitive analysis to identify childrens and teenagers behaviours in health and in learning matters. A psychologist who handles school psychologies is well trained in matters of psychology, child and adolescences development, their psychopathology, family and parenting practices, learning theories and personality theories. These to an extend tries to build the children cognitive levels, ethical, legal and administrative codes of their growth and development. Hence, it impacts on positively on their interpersonal relationships with others (Merrell et al, 2006).
School psychologists greatly help schools to successful achieve a level degree in children attitude change and academic performance by:
i. Improving academic achievement, this is achieved by:
promoting the students motivation and engagement,
monitoring the students progress,
reducing inappropriate referral to special educations,
Collect and interpreted student and class room data.
ii. Create a safe and positive school climate, which is achieved in various ways such as;
Psychologists help to prevent bullying and other forms of violence.
Supports socio-emotional learning.
Implement and promote positive discipline and justice
iii. Promote positive behaviour and mental health through;
Improved students communication skills
Reinforce positive coping skills and resilience among students
Promote problem Solving, anger management and conflict resolution.
School psychology is instrumental for a child cognitive attributes development that enhance mutual understanding and this enhances childrens response to activities such as decision making, interaction, comprehension and awareness. School psychologists are vital for directing children and guiding them towards positive cognitive vices. They enhance better emotional, psychological and emotional growth of students. This is important as it brings out students who are self-centred, competitive and aggressive.
2. Family Psychology
This looks at the inter-family relationships between members of a collective unit and how they impact on the neighbourhoods and school settings. Family psychology is important as it exhibit persons behaviour to the outside world. Family psychology, in general, is the treatment of the family unit, which can entail providing counselling on matters concerning marriage and divorce, abuse, bereavement, parenting and adoption.
Family psychologies counsel families and individuals, assisting in solving or rather preventing problems within the family units. The family psychologists carefully analyse and study a familys system through analysing its behaviours, communications and emotional problems among family members. These problems are detrimental in bringing conflict within the family unit. Therefore, if not handled on time and with extreme precaution can escalate into family breakages that impact negatively on the cognitive attributes of family members (Saberi 2011).
Family psychology is essential as it cements family structures, hence creating a great bond among family members which unites the family unit. Through critically analysing the behaviours and emotional responses of each and every family members, the psychologist can easily pinpoint the cracks within the family structure. Therefore being able to solve some of them hence increases interpersonal relations between members of the family unit.
In cases of inheritance, divorce and bereavements, family psychologists are usually called upon to oversee on family matters. As they know the cognitive behaviours of various family members, therefore, can determine the extent of the issue at hand and are in a better condition to determine the family stand. Family psychologist same as family lawyers and barristers, they can advise the family on critical matters and the best position to take on certain legal matters.
My choice in school and family specialities was driven by the cognitive attributes brought about by members of these groups. More so psychologists in this area can be easily trained professionals, and they are easily accessible because family and school matters are essential for the growth and development of children. Family and school psychologies are intertwined, as conflicts at home can affect a child cognitive behaviour at school and vice versa. Therefore, good environmental conditions for both school and family psychology are instrumental for children growth and development.
Fernald L.D, (2008). Psychology; Six perspectives. (pp. 12-15) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage publications.
ONeil, H.F, Mitterr, J.O. (2008). Introduction to Psychology: Gateways to mind and behaviour (12th ed., pp. 15-16) Stamford, CT:Cengage Learning.
Jules, M. S. (2014). Choosing a psychologist Speciliatity. Careers in Psychology.Merrell, Kenneth W. Ervin, Ruth A., Gimpel, G. (2006). School psychology for the 21st Century: Foundation and practices. Guilford Press.Saberi, Roy. (2011). The psychology of family.
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