History and ContextIt is essential to consider that various philosophical perspectives make philosophy an intriguing domain of science, an aspect that makes the full comprehension of the sources of these philosophical beliefs. Buddhism is considered to have originated in India by Gautama Siddhartha who was born in the fifth century to a tribal chief of one of the clans in Nepal (Siderits, 11). According to Buddhist, it was prophesized that Gautama would be the king and savior of humanity. Gautama grew up under the confines of wealthy merchants and was raised in full awareness of the pleasures and luxuries of the world.
Buddhists are considered to hold on the philosophical expressions aimed at ending the aspect of suffering. The English word for suffering in the Buddhist context is a translation of the Sanskrit term du? Khan clearly denoting all the kinds of suffering that includes physical and mental miseries that contrast to happiness (Chang, 147). Suffering, in this case, is a fundamental concept in the Buddhist soteriological schemes, with its existence and originality explained by the doctrine of Buddhism known as the Four Nobble Truths (Siderits, 24). The first belief holds on to the element of suffering that involves all human beings, thus being a human being means suffering. By being born, we are brought to a world of pains, an account that is backed by the through that all who are born get sick, age, and finally, dies (Byock, 242).
Another source of pain is perceived to arise from the element of attachment to an individuals mental constituents (samsk? ra) of their previous lives. This attachment, therefore, results in rebirth and a continual suffering. In this case, this form of suffering was inherited from the Vedic traditions on their metaphysical notion of the circles involved in birth and death (samsara) and governed by the karmic forces, thus founding suffering (Siderits, 45). Thirdly, the mental state is also considered as a source of suffering, an aspect that denotes the dissatisfaction that finds root from unsatisfactory results on a self-originated desire. The Buddhist ontological perspective, however, believes in the passion for maintaining happiness since things are impermanent (anitya) (Chang, 176). Lastly, the understanding of suffering emanates from the relation between patience and compassion. Individuals are required to be patient in a bid to avoid the momentary experiences of suffering.
Humanistic Expression and Significance
Suffering is considered as a feature in human life that remains inevitable as death. The reality of suffering, in this case, presents a challenge in understanding approaches of accounting for it, with the all-loving, all-knowing, and all-powerful creator questioned on the sustenance of the world in which individuals, especially the innocent ones suffer (Chang, 172). Humanism, therefore, views suffering as a problem, with the notion of suffering raising several challenging questions for humanists. However, the Buddhist believe in the element of suffering as a product of cause and effect on the actions that result in selfishness, ignorance, intolerance, and indulgence, thought to be a hindrance to the achievement of enlightenment (Byock, 243). Given this, Buddha failed to believe in a supernatural creator since he thought that humanism remains responsible for their paths in life. In addressing the element of suffering, the Buddhist initiated the Eightfold Path to guide humanity in following and walking through life without suffering, fear, or doubt (Siderits, 66).
Approaches of Stopping Rebirth
The primary objective of Buddhism is driven towards combating pain, which is viewed as an essential element in the human condition. Humanism, in this case, presents a different goal aimed at defending the rights of people, freeing individuals from controlling institutions build by a supernatural religion, and promoting a secular ethical system (Byock, 242). Buddhism, therefore, considers the lifespan of humanity to being a single episode within a longer story.
This view in Buddhism is considered as the re-birth hypothesis that describes individuals in five main segments: one on the physical attributes, three on the psychological elements (perceptions, feelings, and consciousness) and the last being volitional formations. The primary approach aimed at stopping the hypothesis of rebirth remains in reaching a full enlightenment in the process ((Chang, 168). In this case, it is essential to consider that the enlightenment process emphasizes on the mental development of humanity that is viewed as a failure to secular and theistic ethics, thus resulting in issues immorality and inhumanity within the society.
In conclusion, Buddhists are considered to hold on the philosophical expressions aimed at ending the aspect of suffering. Suffering, in this case, is a fundamental concept in the Buddhist soteriological schemes, with its existence and originality explained by the doctrine of Buddhism known as the Four Nobble Truths (Chang, 168). Suffering is therefore considered as a feature in human life that remains inevitable as death. The hypothesis of rebirth remains essential in achieving a full enlightenment. In this case, it is essential to consider that the enlightenment process emphasizes on the mental development of humanity that is viewed as a failure to secular and theistic ethics, thus resulting in issues immorality and inhumanity within the society.
Byock, Ira R. "The nature of suffering and the nature of opportunity at the end of life." Clinics in geriatric medicine 12.2 (2013): 237.
Chang, Garma CC. The Buddhist teaching of totality: the philosophy of Hwa Yen Buddhism. Routledge, 2013.
Siderits, Mark. Buddhism as philosophy: An introduction. Hackett Publishing, 2007.
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